Being Single as a Social Barrier to Access Reproductive Healthcare Services by Iranian Girls

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Student Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4 Department of Islamic Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Background
Iranian single women are deprived of reproductive healthcare services, though the provision of such services to the public has increased. This study aimed to explore the experiences of Iranian single women on their access to reproductive health services.
 
Methods
A qualitative design using a conventional content analysis method was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with 17 single women and nine health providers chosen using the purposive sampling method.
 
Results
Data analysis resulted in the development of three categories: ‘family’s attitudes and performance about single women’s reproductive healthcare,’ ‘socio-cultural factors influencing reproductive healthcare,’ and ‘cultural factors influencing being a single woman.’
 
Conclusion
Cultural and contextual factors affect being a single woman in every society. Therefore, healthcare providers need to identify such factors during the designing of strategies for improving the facilitation of access to reproductive healthcare services.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1.  Shaikh BT, Hatcher J. Health seeking behaviour and health service utilization in Pakistan: challenging the policy makers. J Public Health. 2005;27(1):49-54. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdh207
  2. Mugisha F, Bocar K, Dong H, Chepng'eno G. The two faces of enhancing utilization of health-care services: determinants of patient initiation and retention in rural Burkina Faso. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(8):572-579.
  3. Shen C. Determinants of health care decisions: Insurance, utilization, and expenditures. Rev Econ Stat. 2013;95(1):142-153. doi:10.1162/rest_a_00232
  4. Rebhan DP. Health Care Utilization: Understanding and applying theories and models of health care seeking behavior. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University;2011:1-19.
  5. Obermeyer CM. The cultural context of reproductive health: implications for monitoring the Cairo agenda. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 1999;25:S50-S55. doi:10.2307/2991872
  6. Murthy RK, Klugman B. Service accountability and community participation in the context of health sector reforms in Asia: implications for sexual and reproductive health services. Health Policy Plan. 2004;19(Suppl 1):i78-i86. doi:10.1093/heapol/czh048
  7. United Nations (UN). The World's Women 2010: Trends and Statistics. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/worldswomen/ww2010pub.htm. Accessed May 2015. Published 2011.
  8. Sharp EA, Ganong L. “I’m a loser, I’m not married, let’s just all look at me”: ever-single women’s perceptions of their social environment. J Fam Issues. 2011;32(7):956-980. doi:10.1177/0192513x10392537
  9. Bhanderi MN, Kannan S. Untreated reproductive morbidities among ever married women of slums of Rajkot City, Gujarat: the role of class, distance, provider attitudes, and perceived quality of care. J Urban Health. 2010;87(2):254-263. doi:10.1007/s11524-009-9423-y
  10. Esmailnasab N, Hassanzadeh J, Rezaeian S, Barkhordari M. Use of Health Care Services and Associated Factors among Women. Iran J Publ Health. 2014;43(1):70-78.
  11. Vice Chanceler and Health Center of Isfahan province. Regulations and guidelines for the assessment of Iranian Eldery People's health 2014. http://phc.mui.ac.ir/fa/content/. Accessed  February 2, 2015.
  12. Vice Chanceler and Health Center of Isfahan province. Regulations and guidelines for the assessment of Iranian men's health (SAMA) 2014. http://phc.mui.ac.ir/fa/content/. Accessed  February 2, 2015.
  13. Vice Chanceler and Health Center of Isfahan province. Regulations and guidelines for the assessment of Iranian Women's health (SABA) 2014. http://phc.mui.ac.ir/fa/content/. Accessed  February 2, 2015.
  14. Davari M, Kohan S, Enjezab B, Javadnoori M. Promoting the efficient use of human resources in reproductive health services in Iran: a cost-service analysis. Health Information Managment. 2011;8(7):929-937.
  15. Ahmadi B, Babashahi S. Management women's health: policy, research and services. Quarterly Journal of Social Welfare. 2012;12th year(47):29-59.
  16. Habibpour K, Ghaffary G. A study on the causes of rising mariage age among girls (Persian). Journal of Woman in Development and Policy. 2011;9(1):7-34
  17. Moosavibeladi S. Study the evolution of marriage in Iran (Persian). Population. 2001;27-28:81-105.
  18. Golestannezhad A. Statistics Book of Isfahan City (Persian). Isfahan: Vice-Chancellor of Planning, Research and Technology Information, Isfahan Municipality; 2012:48.
  19. Statistics of  young adult  who living alone in big cities. Mehr News Agency. 2010; http://www.mehrnews.com/. Accessed may 5, 2016.
  20. Haghshenas J. Family pathology (Articles collection) (Persian).Qom:Office of  Women's Studies;  2010.
  21. Karami M, Papinezhad S. Socio-cultural backgrounds of single Girls who  living alone (Persian). Quarterly Journal of Cultural-Educational of  Women and the Family. 2014;7(21):1.
  22. Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ today. 2004;24(2):105-112. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001
  23. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice: Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
  24. UNFPA. Reproductive Health of H’mong People in Ha Giang Province Medical Anthropology Perspective. HANOI: UNFPA; 2008: http://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/Reproductive%20Health%20minorities%20-%20Vietnam.pdf.
  25. UNFPA. Socio-Cultural Influences on the Reproductive Health of Migrant Women: A Review of Literature in Viet Nam UNFPA. http://www.unfpa.org/publications/socio-cultural-influences-reproductive-health-migrant-women-review-literature-viet-nam#sthash.Ucd1espm.dpuf. Published 2011.
  26. Corrigan PW. On the stigma of mental illness: Practical strategies for research and social change. American Psychological Association; 2005.
  27. Kempe A, Noor-Aldin Alwazer F, Theorell T. The role of demand factors in utilization of professional care during childbirth: perspectives from Yemen. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:382487. doi:10.5402/2011/382487
  28. Haque SE, Rahman M, Mostofa MG, Zahan MS. Reproductive health care utilization among young mothers in Bangladesh: does autonomy matter? Womens Health Issues. 2012;22(2):e171-e180. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2011.08.004
  29. Jiang Y, Yu Z, Yi F, Zazhi X. Investigation of health literacy and enterprise provided health service utilization among migrants in construction site (Chinese). Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015;49(1):36-40.
  30. Olayinka OA, Achi OT, Amos AO, Chiedu EM. Awareness and barriers to utilization of maternal health care services among reproductive women in Amassoma community, Bayelsa State. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery. 2014;6(1):10-15. doi:10.5897/ijnm2013.0108
  31. Latifnejad R, Jvadnouri M, Hasanpour M, Hazaveyi MM, Taghipour A. The necessity of sexual-health education for Iranian female adolescents: a qualitative study (Persian). The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2012;15(12):7-17.
  32. Parlieamant of  Iran. Judicial and Legal Commission, Islamic criminal low. Tehran: Parlieamant of Islamic Republic of Iran; 2013.
  33. Bott S, Jejeebhoy S, Shah I, Puri C. Towards adulthood: exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
  34. UNFPA. Cultural Programming: Reproductive Health Challenges and Strategies in East and South-East Asia. Bangko: UNFPA; 2005.
  35. Bennett LR. Women, Islam and Modernity: Single Women, Sexuality and Reproductive Health in Contemporary Indonesia. New York: Routledge; 2005.
  36. Brown L, Macintyre K, Trujillo L. Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS Education and Prevention. 2003;15(1):49-69. doi:10.1521/aeap.15.1.49.23844
  37. Sychareun V. Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Unmarried Young People: Attitudes of Formal and Informal Sector Providers in Vientiane Municipality, Lao PDR. Reproductive Health Matters. 2004;12(23):155–165. doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(04)23117-2
  38. Bam K, Haseen F, BC RK, et al. Perceived sexual and reproductive health needs and service utilization among higher secondary school students in urban Nepal. Am J Public Health Res 2015;3(2):36-45.