Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital.
Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual.
Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different.
Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.
Maslach C, Schaufeli WB. Historical and conceptual development of burnout. In: Schaufeli WB, C Maslach, T Marek, editors. Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis; 1993. p. 1-16.
Llorens S, Bakker AB, Schaufeli W, Salanova M. Testing the robustness of the job demands-resources model. Int J Stress Manag 2006; 13: 378-91. doi: 10.1037/1072-5245.13.3.378
Schaufeli W, Salanova M. Work engagement: On how to better catch a slippery concept. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 2011; 20: 39-46. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2010.515981
Schaufeli WB, Salanova M, González-Romá V, Bakker AB. The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. J Happiness Stud 2002; 3: 71-92. doi: 10.1023/A:1015630930326
May DR, Gilson RL, Harter LM. The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. J Occup Organ Psychol 2004; 77: 11-37.
Kahn WA. Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Acad Manage J 1990; 33: 692-724. doi: 10.2307/256287
Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Salanova M. The Measurement of Work Engagement With a Short Questionnaire: A Cross-National Study. Educational and Psychological Measurement 2006; 66: 701-16. doi: 10.1177/0013164405282471
Roberts DR, Davenport TO. Job Engagement: Why It's Important and How to Improve It. Employ Relat Today 2002; 29: 21-9.
Seijts GH, Crim D. What engages employees the most or, The Ten C's of employee engagement. Ivey Business Journal 2006; 70: 1-5.
Schmit MJ, Allscheid SP. Employee attitudes and customer satisfaction: making theoretical and empirical connections. Pers Psychol 1995; 48: 521-36.
Iaffaldano MT, Muchinsky PM. Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 1985; 97: 251-73. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.97.2.251
Gilbert S, Laschinger HK, Leiter M. The mediating effect of burnout on the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational citizenship behaviours. J Nurs Manag 2010; 18: 339-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01074.x
Lowe G. How employee engagement matters for hospital performance. Healthc Q 2012; 15: 29-39.
Prins JT, Gazendam-Donofrio SM, Dillingh GS, van de Wiel HB, van der Heijden FM, Hoekstra-Weebers JE. The relationship between reciprocity and burnout in Dutch medical residents. Med Educ 2008; 42: 721-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03041.x
Adyasha R. A Motivated Employee: A Qualitative Study on various Motivational Practices used in Organizations. Aweshkar Research Journal 2013; 15: 98-103.
Handa M, Gulati A. Employee Engagement. Journal of Management Research 2014; 14: 57-67.
Catlette B, Hadden R. Discretionary Effort. Sales and Service Excellence 2008; 8: 8.
Harrison AG. 5 steps to employee engagement: Improving your goals for organizational success. Public Relations Tactics 2012; 19: 10.
Dalal RS, Brummel BJ, Wee S, Thomas LL. Defining Employee Engagement for Productive Research and Practice. Ind Organ Psychol 2008; 1: 52-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2007.00008.x
Bakker AB, Shimazu A, Demerouti E, Shimada K, Kawakami N. Work engagement versus workaholism: a test of the spillover-crossover model. Journal of Managerial Psychology 2014; 29: 63-80. doi: 10.1108/JMP-05-2013-0148
Breland BT, Donovan JJ. The Role of State Goal Orientationin the Goal Establishment Process. Human Performance 2005; 18: 23-53. doi: 10.1207/s15327043hup1801_2
Luth MT, May DR. Toward a multilevel framework of engagement and performance at work. Academy of Management Proceedings 2012; 2012: 1. doi: 10.5465/AMBPP.2012.14
Sonnentag S, Mojza EJ, Binnewies C, Scholl A. Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect. Work Stress 2008; 22: 257-76. doi: 10.1080/02678370802379440
Doucet O, Simard G, Tremblaya M. L'effet médiateur du soutien et de la confiance dans la relation entre le leadership et l'engagement (French)= Leadership and Commitment: The Mediating Role of Trust and Support. Relations industrielles 2008; 63: 625-47.
Christian MS, Garza AS, Slaughter JE. Work engagement: a quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology 2011; 64: 89-136. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01203.x
Barrick MR, Mount MK, Li N. The theory of purposeful work behavior: the role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Acad Manage Rev 2013; 38: 132-53. doi: 10.5465/amr.2010.0479
Marchand C, Vandenberghe C. Envergure du poste et engagement : le rôle modérateur du soutien et des relations avec le supérieur (French)= Job Scope and Affective Commitments: The Moderating Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Member Exchange. Relations industrielles 2014; 69: 621-44.
Kanfer S. Authors on the Road. New Leader 2008; 91: 14-6.
Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Salanova M. The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: a cross-national study. Educ Psychol Meas 2006; 66: 701-16.
Viljevac A, Cooper-Thomas HD, Saks AM. An investigation into the validity of two measures of work engagement. International Journal of Human Resource Management 2012; 23: 3692-709. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2011.639542
Great Managers Boost Employee Engagement. Journal of Financial Planning 2014; 27: 10.
Nilsson P, Andersson HI, Ejlertsson G. The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS): A useful tool in workplace health promotion. Work 2013; 45: 379-87. doi: 10.3233/WOR-121541
Hultell D, Gustavsson JP. A psychometric evaluation of the Scale of Work Engagement and Burnout (SWEBO). Work 2010; 37: 261-74. doi: 10.3233/WOR-2010-1078
Soane E, Truss C, Alfes K, Shantz A, Rees C, Gatenby M. Development and application of a new measure of employee engagement: the ISA Engagement Scale. Human Resource Development International 2012; 15: 529-47. doi: 10.1080/13678868.2012.726542
Taris TW, Kompier MAJ, De Lange AH, Schaufeli WB, Schreurs PJ. Learning new behaviour patterns: A longitudinal test of Karasek's active learning hypothesis among Dutch teachers. Work Stress 2003; 17: 1-20. doi: 10.1080/0267837031000108149
Simon B. Prism: Shortcut to data analysis. 1995. p. 56.
Freeney Y, Fellenz MR. Work engagement as a key driver of quality of care: a study with midwives. J Health Organ Manag 2013; 27: 330-49.
Yüksel H. The Concept of Workaholism As The Extreme Point in Work Engagement, Its Individual and Organizational Outcomes. International Journal of Alanya Faculty of Business 2014; 6: 119-30.
Shimazu A, Schaufeli WB, Kubota K, Kawakami N. Do workaholism and work engagement predict employee well-being and performance in opposite directions? Ind Health 2012; 50: 316-21.
Attridge M. Measuring and managing employee work engagement: a review of the research and business literature. J Workplace Behav Health 2009; 24: 383-98. doi: 10.1080/15555240903188398
Halm B. Employee engagement: a prescription for organizational transformation. Adv Health Care Manag 2011; 10: 77-96.
Ruck K, Welch M. Valuing internal communication; management and employee perspectives. Public Relat Rev 2012; 38: 294-302. doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.12.016
Mishra K, Boynton L, Mishra A. Driving Employee Engagement: The Expanded Role of Internal Communications. Journal of Business Communication 2014; 51: 183-202. doi: 10.1177/2329488414525399
Fleming J. From gallup: why engagement is essential. Strategic Communication Management 2009; 13: 7.
Lerner M. Turn everyday tasks into employee engagement opportunities. Radiol Manage 2011; 33: 16.
Dávila N, Piña-Ramírez W. What Drives Employee Engagement? It's All About the 'I'. Public Manager 2014; 43: 6-9.
Jeve, Y., Oppenhemier, C., & Konje, J. (2015). Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 4(2), 85-90. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2015.12
Yadava Bapurao Jeve; Christna Oppenhemier; Justin Konje. "Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study". International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 4, 2, 2015, 85-90. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2015.12
Jeve, Y., Oppenhemier, C., Konje, J. (2015). 'Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study', International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 4(2), pp. 85-90. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2015.12
Jeve, Y., Oppenhemier, C., Konje, J. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 2015; 4(2): 85-90. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2015.12