The Proportion of Female Physician Links With Advanced Educational Opportunity for Female and by Female

Document Type: Letter to Editor

Authors

1 Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia

2 Medical Governance Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

3 Department of Breast Surgery, Jyoban Hospital of Tokiwa Foundation, Fukushima, Japan

Abstract

Background
The overall proportion of female physician is increasing worldwide. However, its ratio exhibits a substantial diversity among each member country of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This study aimed to reveal the social factors of countries associated with the percentage of female physicians.

 
Methods
We retrieved the percentage of female physicians and social characteristic which may affect the ratio of female physicians of 36 OECD countries in 2016 or nearest year from the World Bank Open Data. Multivariate regression analysis was performed after univariate evaluations with Spearman’s coefficient to explore correlation of social variables with the proportion of female physicians.

 
Results
The percentages of female adolescents who dropped out of school before lower secondary school, female population that attained or completed Master’s or equivalent degree, female labour force, and female academic staff in tertiary education showed statistically significant correlation with proportion of female physicians (Spearman coefficient = -0.527, 0.585, 0.501, and 0.499; P = .01, .001, .002, and .008). Female’s educational attainment at least Master’s or equivalent and that of female academic staff at tertiary education were selected after multivariate analysis.

 
Conclusion
Our study revealed the relationships between advanced education opportunity and female participation in academic positions with the percentage of female physicians. Our research is limited in the difficulty to evaluate physicians’ working hours in spite of its possible effect. Further studies with qualitative assessment are warranted to explore the detail reasons to cause gender gap in physician.

Highlights

 

Supplementary File 1 (Download)

 

Keywords


  1. International Labour Organization (ILO). Labour force participation rate -- ILO modelled estimates. https://www.ilo.org/ilostat/.  Published 2018.
  2. Young A, Chaudhry HJ, Pei X, Arnhart K, Dugan M, Steingard SA. FSMB Census of Licensed Physicians in the United States, 2018. Journal of Medical Regulation. 2019;105(2):7-23.
  3. Association of American Medical Colleges. The State of Women in Academic Medicine: The Pipeline and Pathways to Leadership, 2015-2016. 2016; https://www.aamc.org/members/gwims/statistics/.   Accessed Novermber 26, 2019.
  4. OECD. OECD Health Statistics 2019.  http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/health-data.htm.  
  5. The World Bank. World Bank Open Data. https://data.worldbank.org/.  Published 2019.
  6. Mahr MA, Hayes SN, Shanafelt TD, Sloan JA, Erie JC. Gender Differences in Physician Service Provision Using Medicare Claims Data. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017;92(6):870-880. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.02.017
  7. World Economic Forum. The Global Gender Gap Report 2018. https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-gender-gap-report-2018.  Published 2018.
  8. Oshima K, Ozaki A, Mori J, Takita M, Tanimoto T. Entrance examination misogyny in Japanese medical schools. Lancet. 2019;393(10179):1416. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33180-5
  9. Hu YY, Ellis RJ, Hewitt DB, et al. Discrimination, Abuse, Harassment, and Burnout in Surgical Residency Training. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(18):1741-1752. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1903759