E-Cigarette Markets and Policy Responses in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review

Document Type : Review Article


1 Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

2 Research for Impact, Singapore, Singapore

3 Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

5 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

6 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore


The global e-cigarette market has proliferated and is increasingly dominated by transnational tobacco companies. While Southeast Asian countries have received relatively little attention in e-cigarette research, the region represents an area of potentially untapped growth for the industry. We review the e-cigarette situation in Southeast Asia in terms of the e-cigarette markets, advertising and promotion of e-cigarettes, reported health impacts of e-cigarette use, and policy responses in the region.
We examined e-cigarette market data from the Euromonitor Global Market Information Database (GMID) Passport database, searched in the academic literature, grey literature and news archives for any reports or studies of e-cigarette related diseases or injuries, e-cigarette marketing, and e-cigarette policy responses in Southeast Asian countries, and browsed the websites of online e-cigarette retailers catering to the region’s active e-cigarette markets.
In 2019, e-cigarettes were sold in six Southeast Asian markets with a total market value of $595 million, projected to grow to $766 million by 2023. E-commerce is a significant and growing sales channel in the region, with most of the popular or featured brands in online shops originating from China. Southeast Asian youth are targeted with a wide variety of flavours, trendy designs and point of sale promotions, and several e-cigarette related injuries and diseases have been reported in the region. Policy responses vary considerably between countries, ranging from strict bans to no or partial regulations.
Although Southeast Asia’s e-cigarette market is relatively nascent, this is likely to change if transnationals invest more heavily in the region. Populous countries with weak e-cigarette regulations, notably Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and the Philippines, are desirable targets for the transnationals. Regulatory action is needed to prevent e-cigarette use from becoming entrenched into these societies, especially among young people.


  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Electronic Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS/ENNDS). WHO; 2017.
  2. Euromonitor. GMID Passport Database 2020.
  3. Hajek P, Phillips-Waller A, Przulj D, et al. A randomized trial of e-cigarettes versus nicotine-replacement therapy. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(7):629-637. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1808779
  4. Lee SM, Tenney R, Wallace AW, Arjomandi M. E-cigarettes versus nicotine patches for perioperative smoking cessation: a pilot randomized trial. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5609. doi:10.7717/peerj.5609
  5. Walker N, Parag V, Verbiest M, Laking G, Laugesen M, Bullen C. Nicotine patches used in combination with e-cigarettes (with and without nicotine) for smoking cessation: a pragmatic, randomised trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(1):54-64. doi:10.1016/s2213-2600(19)30269-3
  6. Levy DT, Yuan Z, Li Y, Alberg AJ, Cummings KM. A modeling approach to gauging the effects of nicotine vaping product use on cessation from cigarettes: what do we know, what do we need to know? Addiction. 2019;114 Suppl 1:86-96. doi:10.1111/add.14530
  7. Qin Y, Edjoc R, Osgood ND. Effect of e-cigarette use and social network on smoking behavior change: an agent-based model of e-cigarette and cigarette interaction. Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Modeling: 12th International Conference, SBP-BRiMS 2019. Washington, DC, USA: Springer International; 2019.
  8. Warner KE, Mendez D. E-cigarettes: comparing the possible risks of increasing smoking initiation with the potential benefits of increasing smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2019;21(1):41-47. doi:10.1093/ntr/nty062
  9. Farsalinos K, Siakas G, Poulas K, Voudris V, Merakou K, Barbouni A. E-cigarette use is strongly associated with recent smoking cessation: an analysis of a representative population sample in Greece. Intern Emerg Med. 2019;14(6):835-842. doi:10.1007/s11739-018-02023-x
  10. Kalkhoran S, Chang Y, Rigotti NA. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in smokers with chronic conditions. Am J Prev Med. 2019;57(6):786-791. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2019.08.017
  11. Villanti AC, Feirman SP, Niaura RS, et al. How do we determine the impact of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor. Addiction. 2018;113(3):391-404. doi:10.1111/add.14020
  12. Skerry A, Lusher J, Banbury S. Electronic cigarette users lack intention to quit vaping. MOJ Addict Med Ther. 2018;5(5):204-207. doi:10.15406/mojamt.2018.05.00121
  13. Subialka Nowariak EN, Lien RK, Boyle RG, Amato MS, Beebe LA. E-cigarette use among treatment-seeking smokers: moderation of abstinence by use frequency. Addict Behav. 2018;77:137-142. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.023
  14. Brose LS, Bowen J, McNeill A, Partos TR. Associations between vaping and relapse to smoking: preliminary findings from a longitudinal survey in the UK. Harm Reduct J. 2019;16(1):76. doi:10.1186/s12954-019-0344-0
  15. Dai H, Leventhal AM. Association of electronic cigarette vaping and subsequent smoking relapse among former smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;199:10-17. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.043
  16. Kulik MC, Lisha NE, Glantz SA. E-cigarettes associated with depressed smoking cessation: a cross-sectional study of 28 European Union countries. Am J Prev Med. 2018;54(4):603-609. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2017.12.017
  17. Diemert L, Bayoumy D, Pelletier H, Schwartz R, O'Connor S. E-Cigarette Use for Smoking Cessation: Scientific Evidence and Smokers’ Experiences. Toronto, CA: Ontario Tobacco Research Unit; 2019.
  18. Erku D, Gartner CE, Morphett K, Snoswell CL, Steadman KJ. Nicotine vaping products as a harm reduction tool among smokers: Review of evidence and implications for pharmacy practice. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(9):1272-1278. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.02.002
  19. Farsalinos K. Electronic cigarettes: an aid in smoking cessation, or a new health hazard? Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2018;12:1753465817744960. doi:10.1177/1753465817744960
  20. Franks AS, Sando K, McBane S. Do electronic cigarettes have a role in tobacco cessation? Pharmacotherapy. 2018;38(5):555-568. doi:10.1002/phar.2103
  21. Gentry S, Forouhi NG, Notley C. Are electronic cigarettes an effective aid to smoking cessation or reduction among vulnerable groups? a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2019;21(5):602-616. doi:10.1093/ntr/nty054
  22. Hartmann-Boyce J, Begh R, Aveyard P. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. BMJ. 2018;360:j5543. doi:10.1136/bmj.j5543
  23. Patil S, Arakeri G, Patil S, et al. Are electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs) helping cigarette smokers quit?-current evidence. J Oral Pathol Med. 2020;49(3):181-189. doi:10.1111/jop.12966
  24. Whitehouse E, Lai J, Golub JE, Farley JE. A systematic review of the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions among patients with tuberculosis. Public Health Action. 2018;8(2):37-49. doi:10.5588/pha.18.0006
  25. Wolf S, O'Sullivan S, Dean R, Owens T. Does utilization of electronic cigarettes facilitate smoking cessation compared to other interventions? J Okla State Med Assoc. 2019;112(5):34-35.
  26. Worku D, Worku E. A narrative review evaluating the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as a newly marketed smoking cessation tool. SAGE Open Med. 2019;7:2050312119871405. doi:10.1177/2050312119871405
  27. Chiang SC, Abroms LC, Cleary SD, Pant I, Doherty L, Krishnan N. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: a prospective study of a national sample of pregnant smokers. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):964. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7299-7
  28. uillaumier A, Manning V, Wynne O, et al. Electronic nicotine devices to aid smoking cessation by alcohol- and drug-dependent clients: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2018;19(1):415. doi:10.1186/s13063-018-2786-1
  29. Halpern SD, Harhay MO, Saulsgiver K, Brophy C, Troxel AB, Volpp KG. A pragmatic trial of e-cigarettes, incentives, and drugs for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(24):2302-2310. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1715757
  30. Lee SH, Ahn SH, Cheong YS. Effect of electronic cigarettes on smoking reduction and cessation in Korean male smokers: a randomized controlled study. J Am Board Fam Med. 2019;32(4):567-574. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2019.04.180384
  31. Berry KM, Reynolds LM, Collins JM, et al. E-cigarette initiation and associated changes in smoking cessation and reduction: the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, 2013-2015. Tob Control. 2019;28(1):42-49. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054108
  32. Chen JC. Flavored e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking reduction and cessation-a large national study among young adult smokers. Subst Use Misuse. 2018;53(12):2017-2031. doi:10.1080/10826084.2018.1455704
  33. Watkins SL, Thrul J, Max W, Ling PM. Real-world effectiveness of smoking cessation strategies for young and older adults: findings from a nationally representative cohort. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020;22(9):1560-1568. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntz223
  34. Gomajee R, El-Khoury F, Goldberg M, et al Electronic cigarette use and smoking reduction–longitudinal data from CONSTANCES cohort study. Eur J Public Health. 2019;29(Suppl_4):ckz185-473. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckz185.473
  35. Jackson SE, Shahab L, West R, Brown J. Associations between dual use of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation: a prospective study of smokers in England. Addict Behav. 2020;103:106230. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106230
  36. Lozano P, Arillo-Santillán E, Barrientos-Gutiérrez I, Zavala-Arciniega L, Reynales-Shigematsu LM, Thrasher JF. E-cigarette use and its association with smoking reduction and cessation intentions among Mexican smokers. Salud Publica Mex. 2019;61(3):276-285. doi:10.21149/9797
  37. Brandon KO, Simmons VN, Meltzer LR, et al. Vaping characteristics and expectancies are associated with smoking cessation propensity among dual users of combustible and electronic cigarettes. Addiction. 2019;114(5):896-906. doi:10.1111/add.14551
  38. Browne M, Todd DG. Then and now: consumption and dependence in e-cigarette users who formerly smoked cigarettes. Addict Behav. 2018;76:113-121. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.034
  39. Foong AL, Lai MY. E-cigarettes for smoking cessation: why do users continue with e-cigarettes? Asian Soc Sci. 2018;14(12):156-167.
  40. Hsu G, Gamst AC, Zhuang YL, Wolfson T, Zhu SH. A comparison of e-cigarette use patterns and smoking cessation behavior among vapers by primary place of purchase. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(5):724. doi:10.3390/ijerph16050724
  41. Notley C, Ward E, Dawkins L, Holland R. The unique contribution of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction in supporting smoking relapse prevention. Harm Reduct J. 2018;15(1):31. doi:10.1186/s12954-018-0237-7
  42. Biondi-Zoccai G, Sciarretta S, Bullen C, et al. Acute effects of heat‐not‐burn, electronic vaping, and traditional tobacco combustion cigarettes: the Sapienza university of Rome‐vascular assessment of proatherosclerotic effects of smoking (SUR‐VAPES) 2 randomized trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(6):e010455. doi:10.1161/jaha.118.010455
  43. Chaumont M, de Becker B, Zaher W, et al. Differential effects of e-cigarette on microvascular endothelial function, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress: a randomized crossover trial. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):10378. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-28723-0
  44. Eltorai AE, Choi AR, Eltorai AS. Impact of electronic cigarettes on various organ systems. Respir Care. 2019;64(3):328-336. doi:10.4187/respcare.06300
  45. Gotts JE, Jordt SE, McConnell R, Tarran R. What are the respiratory effects of e-cigarettes? BMJ. 2019;366:l5275. doi:10.1136/bmj.l5275
  46. Kaur G, Pinkston R, McLemore B, Dorsey WC, Batra S. Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes. Eur Respir Rev. 2018;27(147):170119. doi:10.1183/16000617.0119-2017
  47. Papaefstathiou E, Stylianou M, Agapiou A. Main and side stream effects of electronic cigarettes. J Environ Manage. 2019;238:10-17. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.030
  48. Ratajczak A, Feleszko W, Smith DM, Goniewicz M. How close are we to definitively identifying the respiratory health effects of e-cigarettes? Expert Rev Respir Med. 2018;12(7):549-556. doi:10.1080/17476348.2018.1483724
  49. Thirión-Romero I, Pérez-Padilla R, Zabert G, Barrientos-Gutiérrez I. Respiratory impact of electronic cigarettes and "low-risk" tobacco. Rev Invest Clin. 2019;71(1):17-27. doi:10.24875/ric.18002616
  50. Franzen KF, Willig J, Cayo Talavera S, et al. E-cigarettes and cigarettes worsen peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial stiffness: a randomized, double-blinded pilot study. Vasc Med. 2018;23(5):419-425. doi:10.1177/1358863x18779694
  51. Osei AD, Mirbolouk M, Orimoloye OA, et al. Association between e-cigarette use and cardiovascular disease among never and current combustible-cigarette smokers. Am J Med. 2019;132(8):949-954.e2. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2019.02.016
  52. Darville A, Hahn EJ. E-cigarettes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: what clinicians and researchers need to know. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2019;21(5):15. doi:10.1007/s11883-019-0777-7
  53. MacDonald A, Middlekauff HR. Electronic cigarettes and cardiovascular health: what do we know so far? Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2019;15:159-174. doi:10.2147/vhrm.s175970
  54. Alzahrani T, Pena I, Temesgen N, Glantz SA. Association between electronic cigarette use and myocardial infarction. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(4):455-461. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2018.05.004
  55. Ikonomidis I, Vlastos D, Kourea K, et al. Electronic cigarette smoking increases arterial stiffness and oxidative stress to a lesser extent than a single conventional cigarette: an acute and chronic study. Circulation. 2018;137(3):303-306. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.117.029153
  56. Blagev DP, Harris D, Dunn AC, Guidry DW, Grissom CK, Lanspa MJ. Clinical presentation, treatment, and short-term outcomes of lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping: a prospective observational cohort study. Lancet. 2019;394(10214):2073-2083. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(19)32679-0
  57. Chaumont M, van de Borne P, Bernard A, et al. Fourth generation e-cigarette vaping induces transient lung inflammation and gas exchange disturbances: results from two randomized clinical trials. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2019;316(5):L705-L719. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00492.2018
  58. Higham A, Bostock D, Booth G, Dungwa JV, Singh D. The effect of electronic cigarette and tobacco smoke exposure on COPD bronchial epithelial cell inflammatory responses. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018;13:989-1000. doi:10.2147/copd.s157728
  59. Scott A, Lugg ST, Aldridge K, et al. Pro-inflammatory effects of e-cigarette vapour condensate on human alveolar macrophages. Thorax. 2018;73(12):1161-1169. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-211663
  60. Miyashita L, Suri R, Dearing E, et al. E-cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells. Eur Respir J. 2018;51(2):1701592. doi:10.1183/13993003.01592-2017
  61. Ghosh A, Coakley RC, Mascenik T, et al. Chronic e-cigarette exposure alters the human bronchial epithelial proteome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;198(1):67-76. doi:10.1164/rccm.201710-2033OC
  62. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products. CDC; 2020.
  63. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. JUUL and Other High Nicotine E-Cigarettes Are Addicting a New Generation of Youth. United States: Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids; 2020.
  64. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. JUUL and Youth: Rising E-Cigarette Popularity. https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/factsheets/0394.pdf.  Accessed May 26, 2020. Published 2019.
  65. Grant JE, Lust K, Fridberg DJ, King AC, Chamberlain SR. E-cigarette use (vaping) is associated with illicit drug use, mental health problems, and impulsivity in university students. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2019;31(1):27-35.
  66. Beard E, West R, Michie S, Brown J. Association of prevalence of electronic cigarette use with smoking cessation and cigarette consumption in England: a time-series analysis between 2006 and 2017. Addiction. 2020;115(5):961-974. doi:10.1111/add.14851
  67. Hallingberg B, Maynard OM, Bauld L, et al. Have e-cigarettes renormalised or displaced youth smoking? results of a segmented regression analysis of repeated cross sectional survey data in England, Scotland and Wales. Tob Control. 2020;29(2):207-216. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054584
  68. Morgenstern M, Nies A, Goecke M, Hanewinkel R. E-cigarettes and the use of conventional cigarettes. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2018;115(14):243-248. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2018.0243
  69. Fadus MC, Smith TT, Squeglia LM. The rise of e-cigarettes, pod mod devices, and JUUL among youth: factors influencing use, health implications, and downstream effects. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;201:85-93. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.04.011
  70. Perikleous EP, Steiropoulos P, Paraskakis E, Constantinidis TC, Nena E. E-cigarette use among adolescents: an overview of the literature and future perspectives. Front Public Health. 2018;6:86. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2018.00086
  71. Chyderiotis S, Benmarhnia T, Beck F, Spilka S, Legleye S. Does e-cigarette experimentation increase the transition to daily smoking among young ever-smokers in France? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020;208:107853. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107853
  72. Levy DT, Borland R, Lindblom EN, et al. Potential deaths averted in USA by replacing cigarettes with e-cigarettes. Tob Control. 2018;27(1):18-25. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053759
  73. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Enforcement Priorities for Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) and Other Deemed Products on the Market Without Premarket Authorization. In: Center for Tobacco Products, ed. United States: FDA; 2020.
  74. EU Trade Helpdesk. Ban on flavoured tobacco products and new requirements for e-cigarettes from 20 May 2016. https://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/july/tradoc_154817.pdf.  Accessed May 10, 2020. Published July 2016.
  75. O’Donovan L. An Overview of the E-Cigarette Market. Tobacco Asia; 2017.
  76. Abad M. After U.S. Scandal, JUUL Develops New Market in the Philippines. Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA); 2020.
  77. Du L, Einhorn B. Asia Smokers Are New Target for Embattled E-Cigarette Maker Juul. Bloomberg; 2019.
  78. Hasnan L. Malaysia Wants to Regulate E-Cigarettes. The ASEAN Post; 2019.
  79. The Straits Times. Malaysia's Fatwa Council Declares Electronic Cigarettes as 'Haram' or Forbidden. The Straits Times; 2015.
  80. The Straits Times. Malaysia's Terengganu 5th State to Ban Vaping. The Straits Times; 2015.
  81. Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA). Electronic Cigarettes in Asia - A Review of Promotions and Availability. Bangkok, Thailand: SEATCA; 2014.
  82. Kirkham C, Potkin F, Morales NJ. Exclusive: Juul Halts Indonesia E-Cigarette Sales, Throwing Asia Expansion in Doubt. Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA); 2020.
  83. Sheralyn. 34yo M’sian Hospitalised for Fluid & Fungus in His Lungs After Switching to Vape for 2 Weeks. WORLD OF BUZZ. October 14, 2019. https://worldofbuzz.com/34yo-msian-hospitalised-for-fluid-fungus-in-his-lungs-after-switching-to-vape-for-2-weeks/.
  84. Iman K. Malaysia Just Got its First Case of Vape-Related Illness. So How Unsafe is Vaping? CILISOS; 2019.
  85. New Straits Times. Mysterious Vaping-Related Illness Surfaces in Malaysia. New Straits Times; 2019.
  86. The Nation. DOH Cites 1st PH Case of Vape-Related Injury. The Nation; 2019.
  87. Coconuts Bangkok. Marijuana Vaping Disease Strikes Thai Patient: Doctor. Coconuts Bangkok; 2019.
  88. Wang MP, Ho SY, Leung LT, Lam TH. Electronic cigarette use and respiratory symptoms in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(1):89-91. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3024
  89. Lestari KS, Humairo MV, Agustina U. Formaldehyde vapor concentration in electronic cigarettes and health complaints of electronic cigarettes smokers in Indonesia. J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:9013430. doi:10.1155/2018/9013430
  90. Nelz J. Vape Explodes While Filipino Testing Out the Product at Shop. Philippine News; 2017.
  91. Flora IO. 10 Injured in Pampanga Mall Stampede. SunStar; 2018.
  92. de Vera A. DOH to Probe Alleged Explosion of Vaping Device Wounding Face of 17-Year-Old Boy. Manila Bulletin; 2018.
  93. Ghazali R. Vape Battery Catches Fire in Aircraft: 'It Was a Case of Ignorance.’ AsiaOne; 2015.
  94. Berita Harian. Man Injured After E-Cigarette Explodes in Face. The Star; 2015.
  95. Khairudin MN, Mohd Zahidin AZ, Bastion ML. Front to back ocular injury from a vaping-related explosion. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016. doi:10.1136/bcr-2016-214964
  96. Tribun Lampung. Rokok Elektronik yang Diisap Meledak, Dada Pria Ini Terbakar dan Kelopak Matanya Robek (‘Electronic Cigarette Explosion Caused Chest Burns and Injury to the Eye Lid’). Tribum Lampung; 2016.
  97. Mohamad L. Faulty Electrical Wiring Behind Most of House Fire Accidents. Borneo Bulletin; 2018.
  98. Chien YN, Gao W, Sanna M, et al. Electronic cigarette use and smoking initiation in Taiwan: evidence from the first prospective study in Asia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(7). doi:10.3390/ijerph16071145
  99. Gao W, Sanna M, Chuluunbaatar E, Tsai MK, Levy DT, Wen CP. Are e-cigarettes reviving the popularity of conventional smoking among Taiwanese male adolescents? a time-trend population-based analysis for 2004-2017. Tob Control. 2021;30(2):132-136. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055310
  100. Lim KH, Ghazali SM, Lim HL, et al. Smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia: findings from a national school-based survey. BMJ Open. 2019;9(10):e031164. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031164
  101. Chen PC, Chang LC, Hsu C, Lee YC. Electronic cigarette use and attempts to quit smoking cigarettes among adolescents in Taiwan. J Adolesc Health. 2019;64(1):99-106. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.07.008
  102. Wu SY, Wang MP, Li WH, Kwong AC, Lai VW, Lam TH. Does electronic cigarette use predict abstinence from conventional cigarettes among smokers in Hong Kong? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(3). doi:10.3390/ijerph15030400
  103. Jin P, Jiang JY. E-cigarettes in ten Southeast Asian countries: a comparison of national regulations. Glob Health J. 2017;1(3):1-10. doi:10.1016/s2414-6447(19)30097-1
  104. Global Tobacco Control. E-Cigarette Policy Scan. https://globaltobaccocontrol.org/e-cigarette/countries.  Accessed May 6, 2020. Published 2020.
  105. Shih CS, Etter JF. Stakeholders' views on e-cigarette legislation: a qualitative study in Taiwan. Front Public Health. 2019;7:354. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2019.00354
  106. Ministry of Health and Welfare Taiwan. General information on amendments to Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act. Taiwan; 2020.
  107. Smoking (Control of Advertisements and Sale of Tobacco) (Amendment) Act 2010, No. 17 of 2010 (2010).
  108. Ministry of Health. Second Reading Speech for Proposed Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) Act. Ministry of Health; 2010.
  109. Ministry of Health. Singapore Enhances Tobacco Control Efforts with Ban on Emerging Tobacco Products. Ministry of Health; 2015.
  110. Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) (Amendment) Act 2016, No.9 of 2016 (2016).
  111. Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) (Amendment) Act 2017, No.46 of 2017 (2017).
  112. Hong Kong Legislative Council Secretariat. Regulation of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products in selected places. In: Research Office, ed. Hong Kong, 2018.
  113. RTHK. Govt to Re-Table Vape Ban to Next Legco. RTHK; 2020.
  114. Caruana D. Malaysia Considers Total E-Cigarette Ban. Vaping Post; 2019.
  115. Prohibiting the Manufacture, Distribution, Marketing and Sale of Unregistered And/Or Adulterated Electronic Nicotine/Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems, Heated Tobacco Products and Other Novel Tobacco Prodcts, Amending Executive Order No. n26 (S, 2017) and For Other Purposes, Executive Order No. 106 (2020).
  116. CNN Philippines. Nationwide Smoking Ban Now Covers Vape. CNN Philippines. February 28, 2020. https://www.cnnphilippines.com/news/2020/2/28/duterte-vaping-ban-philippines-2020.html.
  117. Xu X. Philippines' Duterte Orders Nationwide Ban on Public Vaping, Unregistered E-Cigarettes Sales. Xinhua. February 28, 2020. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-02/28/c_138827536.htm.
  118. Amul GGH, Tan GPP, van der Eijk Y. A systematic review of tobacco industry tactics in Southeast Asia: lessons for other low- and middle-income regions. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2020; In Press. doi:10.34172/ijhpm.2020.97
  119. Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA). The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas. 4th ed. Bangkok, Thailand: SEATCA; 2020.
  120. Williams RS, Derrick J, Ribisl KM. Electronic cigarette sales to minors via the internet. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(3):e1563. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.63
  121. Berg CJ, Haardörfer R, Cahn Z, et al. The association between Twitter activity and e-cigarette purchasing. Tob Regul Sci. 2019;5(6):502-517. doi:10.18001/TRS.5.6.3
  122. Lee IC. E-Cigarette Usage Among Young on the Rise, HPA Says. Taipei Times. August 22, 2019. https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2019/08/22/2003720925.
  123. Lam L. Man's Illegal Online E-Cigarette Business Derailed by HSA, Fined S$45,000. CNA. July 17, 2020.  https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/man-ran-illegal-online-e-cigarette-business-until-hsa-nabbed-him-12940564.
  124. Lim J. Ban on E-Cigarettes: 465 People Caught for Possessing Products, HSA ‘Working Closely’ with Carousell, Instagram to Monitor Sales. Today.  November 5, 2019. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/ban-e-cigarettes-465-people-caught-possessing-products-hsa-working-closely-carousell-instagram-sales.
  125. Gallagher A, Gilmore A. Euromonitor international now accepts tobacco industry funding: a WIN for PMI at the expense of research on the tobacco industry. https://blogs.bmj.com/tc/2019/04/08/euromonitor-international-now-accepts-tobacco-industry-funding-a-win-for-pmi-at-the-expense-of-research-on-the-tobacco-industry/. Posted April 8, 2019.
Volume 11, Issue 9
September 2022
Pages 1616-1624
  • Receive Date: 19 October 2020
  • Revise Date: 10 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 13 March 2021
  • First Publish Date: 13 April 2021