A Comparative Analysis on the Social Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage in Fragile and Conflict Affected Settings and Non-fragile and Conflict Affected Settings

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Global Health Governance, Prasanna School of Public Health, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

2 Department of Microeconomics and Public Economics, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

3 Public Health Evidence South Asia, Department of Health Information, Prasanna School of Public Health, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has coerced various resources of all the countries. While the high-income nations redirected financial and human resources to understand specific determinants of vaccination coverage, fragile and conflict-affected setting (FCS) nations were waiting for global bodies to cater to their ever-growing need for vaccines and other lifesaving drugs. This study aimed to determine various factors influencing vaccine coverage in the FCS context.

World Bank’s classification of FCS states was the primary source for country classification. The study utilized data from various other open sources. The study models cross-country inequities in COVID-19 vaccine coverage and we have employed multi-variate log-linear regressions to understand the relationship between COVID-19 vaccine coverage and cross-country macro-level determinants. The analysis was conducted on two samples, non-FCS Countries and the FCS countries.

Socio-economic determinants such as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, socioeconomic resilience; health system determinants such as density of human resources, government spending on health expenditure; and political determinants such as effective government, more power to regional governments, political stability and absence of violence play a pivotal role in vaccine coverage. We also found that FCS countries with a higher share of people strongly believing in the vaccine effectiveness have a positive association with COVID-19 vaccine coverage.

The study confirmed that political factors, government effectiveness and political stability are also important determinants of vaccine coverage. The result further draws attention to few policy implications such as promoting future research to explore the linkages between the perceived equality before the law and individual liberty and its effect on vaccination coverage in the FCS.


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  • Receive Date: 02 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 07 June 2022
  • Accept Date: 06 September 2022
  • First Publish Date: 07 September 2022