Factors Associated With In-Hospital Death Among Pneumonia Patients in US Hospitals From 2016~2019

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Health Administration and Management, College of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea

2 Center for Healthcare Management Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea

3 Department of Software Convergence, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea

4 School of Pharmacy, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA

5 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Irma Lerma Rangel School of Pharmacy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA


Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of hospital admission in the United States with a global health burden of about 6.8 million hospitalizations and 1.1 million deaths in patients over 65 years old in 2015. This study aimed to identify possible patient and hospital-related risk factors for in-hospital pneumonia death across US hospitals.

The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify nationwide pneumonia patients (n = 374 766, weighted n = 1 873 828) from 2016 to 2019. We examined the characteristics of the study sample and their association with in-hospital death. Multivariate survey logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors.

During the study periods, in-hospital death rates continuously decreased (2.45% in 2016 to 2.19% in 2019). Descriptive statistics showed that patient and hospital factors had varied in-hospital death rates. Survey logistic regression results suggested that male, very low income, non-Medicare, government hospitals, rural hospitals, and specific hospital regions were associated with higher in-hospital death rates than their reference groups.

Socioeconomic factors, including income and insurance, are associated with pneumonia mortality. Census region, hospital ownership, and rural location are also related to in-hospital mortality. Such findings in underserved, impoverished, and rural areas to identify possible health disparities.


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