Analysis of the Prognosis Outcomes and Treatment Delay Among ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emergency Department Based on the Presence of Symptoms Suggestive of COVID-19

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Family Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea

2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea


During COVID-19 pandemic, the emergency department (ED) was challenged to treat patients with COVID-19-related symptom. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate treatment delay and prognostic outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients during COVID-19 pandemic due to isolation or precaution and compare it with pre-COVID-19 period.

This was a retrospective observation study using multicenter data with different case mix. Anonymized data were collected through each center’s electronic medical data of common case report form. Primary outcomes were number and rate of in-hospital mortality within 28 days. Secondary outcomes were door-to-balloon time and length of stay in the ED. Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to determine impact of predictors on 28-day in-hospital mortality.

Door-to-balloon time was longer in STEMI patients with COVID-19-related symptom(s) than those without symptom during the COVID-19 period (97.0 [74.8, 139.8] vs. 69.0 [55.0, 102.0] minutes, P<.001). However, there was no significant statistical difference in door-to-balloon time between STEMI patients with and without COVID-19-related symptom(s) during the pre-COVID-19 period (73.0 [61.0, 92.0] vs. 67.0 [54.5, 80.0] minutes, P=.2869). The 28-day mortality rate did not show a statistically significant difference depending on symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 during the pre-COVID-19 period (15.4% vs. 6.8%, P=.1257). However, it was significantly higher during the COVID-19 period (21.1% vs. 6.7%, P=.0102) in patients with COVID-19 suggestive symptoms than in patients without the symptoms.

In Korea, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 during the pandemic had a significant effect on the increase of door-to-balloon time and 28-day mortality in STEMI patients. Thus, health authorities need to make careful decision in designating symptoms indicated for isolation in ED based on opinions of various medical field experts.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Corrected Proof
Available Online from 15 April 2024
  • Receive Date: 22 July 2023
  • Revise Date: 24 February 2024
  • Accept Date: 13 April 2024
  • First Publish Date: 15 April 2024