Achieving Diagnostic Excellence: Roadmaps to Develop and Use Patient-Reported Measures With an Equity Lens

Document Type : Original Article


1 Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA

2 Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

3 Mothers Against Medical Error, Columbia, SC, USA

4 Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA


Diagnostic excellence refers to the optimal process to attain an accurate and precise explanation about a patient’s condition and incorporates the perspectives of patients and their care partners. Patient-reported measures (PRMs), designed to capture patient-reported information, have potential to contribute to achieving diagnostic excellence. We aimed to craft a set of roadmaps illustrating goals and guiding the development of PRMs for diagnostic excellence (“Roadmaps”).

We used iterative inputs from environmental literature scans, expert consultations, and patient voice and employed human-centred design (HCD) and equity-focused road-mapping. The culminating activity of these approaches was an Expert Convening.

Use of PRMs can achieve multiple goals for diagnostic excellence, including but not limited to: (1) PRMs for diagnostic continuity, (2) diagnostic PRM alerts, (3) PRM-based quality improvement, (4) PRMs for research, (5) PRMs for routine screening, (6) PRM-based diagnostic excellence population-level patterns, and (7) PRMs supporting patient storytelling. Equity is considered as a cross-cutting goal. Altogether these and future goals support operationalising a vision of patient-reported diagnostic excellence. Roadmaps were developed as a dynamic tool to illustrate PRMs in relation to specific steps with feedback loops to accomplish goals, anticipated timeframes (8-15 years), synergies to foster, and challenges to overcome. Roadmaps are practical in their following PRMs through the stages of development, endorsement, implementation and scaling, and acting upon those measures. Timeframe estimates assume immediate transitions between these stages and no acceleration through incentives and active coordination.

PRMs for diagnostic excellence have potential to connect patient perspectives, equity, and achievable goals. Roadmaps offer a design approach to enable coordinating measurement activities among diverse stakeholders. Roadmaps also highlight versatility in ways patient-reported information can be collected and used, from clinical settings to public health contexts. Patient-reported diagnostic excellence cannot be established as a solely top-down endeavour, but inherently benefits from bottom-up approaches.


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Articles in Press, Corrected Proof
Available Online from 01 June 2024
  • Receive Date: 27 March 2023
  • Revise Date: 19 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 29 May 2024
  • First Publish Date: 01 June 2024