Vaccine Wastage Assessment After Introduction of Open Vial Policy in Surat Municipal Corporation Area of India

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Community Medicine, SMIMER Medical College, Surat, India


As per the vaccine management policy of the Government of India all vaccine vials opened for an immunization session were discarded at the end of that session, irrespective of the type of vaccine or the number of doses remaining in the vial prior to 2013. Subsequently, open vial policy (OVP) was introduced in 2013 and should reduce both vaccine wastage as well as governmental healthcare costs for immunization. This study evaluates the vaccine wastage after introduction of the OVP and its comparison with the previous study of vaccine wastage in Surat city before implementation of OVP. It needs to mention that the vaccine policy for this period under comparison was uniform except for the OVP.
Information regarding vaccine doses consumed and children vaccinated during immunization sessions of 24 urban health centers (UHCs) of Surat city were retrieved for the period of January 1st, 2014 to March 31st, 2014. The data were analyzed to estimate vaccine wastage rate (WR) and vaccine wastage factor (WF). In order to assess the impact of OVP, vaccine WR of this study was compared with that of previous study conducted in Surat city during January 1st, 2012 to March 31st, 2012.
The vaccine WR for oral polio vaccine (OPV) has decreased from 25% to 13.62%, while the WRs for DPT, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the pentavalent vaccine combinedly have decreased from 17.94% to 8.05%. Thus, by implementation of OVP, an estimated 747 727 doses of OPV and 343 725 doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus toxoid vaccine (DPT), HBV and the pentavalent vaccines combinedly have been saved in Surat city of India in a year.
The implementation of the OVP in Surat city has led to a significant lowering in the vaccine wastage, leading to savings due to lower vaccine requirements.


Main Subjects

  1. Mukherjee A, Das V, Shrivastava A, et al. An assessment of wastage multiplier factor and percent wastage of vaccines during routine immunization under UIP, Govt. of India. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2010;4(3):181-185. doi:10.4172/2157-7560.1000181
  2. Lee BY, Norman BA, Assi TM, et al. Single vs. multi-dose vaccine vials: an economic computational model. Vaccine. 2010;28(32),5292-5300. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.048
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). The use of opened multi-dose vials of vaccine in subsequent immunization sessions. Geneva, Switzerland: Department of Vaccines and Biologicals: 2000;1-8.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO). Monitoring vaccine wastage at country level: Guidelines for programme managers. Geneva, Switzerland: The Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biological: 2003.
  5. Ministry of Health, HSIMT Division, Program Evaluation Unit, Canada. Panorama Vaccine Inventory Module, Vaccine Wastage Report 2013.
  6. Temptime Corporation, USA. The public health benefit of detecting vaccines exposed to damaging temperatures.
  7. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Immunization Division, Government of India, New Delhi. Open Vial Policy for DPT, TT, HepB, OPV and Liquid Pentavalent. Published 2013
  8. Mehta S, Umrigar P, Patel P, Bansal R. Evaluation of vaccine wastage in Surat. National Journal of Community Medicine. 2013;4(1):15-19.
  9. World Health Organization (WHO). Immunization service delivery & accelerated disease control. management logistics/logistics/expected wastage/en/index.html. Cited April 20, 2014.
  10. Department of Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Immunization Handbook for Medical Officers. Published 2008.
  11. UNICEF. Vaccine Wastage Assessment. Field assessment and observations from National stores and five selected states of India 2010. sment_India.pdf. Cited April 20, 2014.
  12. Palanivel C, Kulkarni V, Kalaiselvi S, Baridalyne N. Vaccine wastage assessment in a primary care setting in urban India. Journal of Pediatric Sciences. 2012;4(1):e119.
  13. Guichard S, Hymbaugh K, Burkholder B, et al. Vaccine wastage in Bangladesh. Vaccine. 2010;28(3):858-863. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.035.
  14. Mukherjee A, Ahluwalia T, Gaur L, et al. Assessment of vaccine wastage during a Pulse Polio Immunization Programme in India. J Health Popul Nutr. 2004;22(1):13-18.
  15. Linkins R, Mansour E, Wassif O, Hassan H, Patriarca P. Evaluation of house-to-house versus fixed-site oral poliovirus vaccine delivery strategies in a mass immunization Campaign in Egypt. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73(5):589-595.
  16. World Health Organization (WHO). Open Vials. Cited April 20, 2014.
  17. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Policy Statement: Multi-dose Vial Policy (MDVP). Available from: Published in September 2014.
  18. Pentavalent boost to immunization. The Times of India. 2014. cms. Cited January 12, 2015.