“Apples and Oranges”: Examining Different Social Groups’ Compliance With Government Health Instructions During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Document Type : Original Article


Division of Public Administration and Policy, School of Political Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel


The coronavirus outbreak has demonstrated the crucial effect of the public’s compliance with the government’s health instructions on the population’s health. However, evidence shows that some communities are less likely to comply with such instructions than others. This study highlights the factors related to intentions to comply with newly issued health directives during an ongoing extreme crisis, such as the current pandemic. In addition, it compares the impact of these factors on different minority groups and the general population in Israel.
Using an online survey (N = 1005), we examined the impact of compliance-related factors on compliance intentions with newly issued health directives in two minority groups in Israel: the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community (N = 323) and the Arab community (N = 361), as well as in the general population (N = 321), during the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Participants were presented with a new made-up COVID-19-related instruction simulated to be issued by the Israeli Ministry of Health. Compliance intentions and compliance-related factors were measured.
The Arab minority expressed greater intentions of complying with the instructions than the other groups. Perceptions on risk and the effectiveness of the instruction were the only two significantly associated factors with compliance intentions in all of the social groups. Additional factors affected different groups to different extents. Trust in government was related to compliance intentions only in the Arab minority.
Intentions to comply with health instructions during a crisis differ in various minority groups and in comparison to the general population, both in their levels and in the factors related to them. Policy-makers and health authorities should consider providing information about the risks and negative outcomes of the crisis as well as the expected effectiveness of the recommended behaviors. Future research should examine other minority groups and other types of instructions in different stages of a crisis.


Main Subjects

  1. Roma P, Monaro M, Muzi L, et al. How to improve compliance with protective health measures during the COVID-19 outbreak: testing a moderated mediation model and machine learning algorithms. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(19). doi:10.3390/ijerph17197252
  2. Lavie E, Elran M, Sawaed K, Mokh MA, Dallashi M. Israel’s Arab Society and the Coronavirus Challenge. Tel-Aviv: The Institute for National Security Studies (INSS); 2020.
  3. Slobodin O, Cohen O. A culturally-competent approach to emergency management: what lessons can we learn from the COVID-19? Psychol Trauma. 2020;12(5):470-473. doi:10.1037/tra0000790
  4. Rabinowitz A. This Haredi City Has the Fastest Coronavirus Infection Rate in Israel. Here's Why. Haaretz; 2020.
  5. Silverstein J. Coronavirus in New York: Brooklyn Hasidic Jews Gather for Rabbi’s Funeral, Defying Social Distancing. CBS News. April 6, 2020. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/coronavirus-hasidic-jews-rabbi-funeral-brooklyn-social-distancing/.
  6. Dalsheim J. Jewish History Explains Why Some Ultra-Orthodox Communities Defy Coronavirus Restrictions. The Conversation; 2020.
  7. Yancy CW. COVID-19 and African Americans. JAMA. 2020;323(19):1891-1892. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6548
  8. Waitzberg R, Davidovitch N, Leibner G, Penn N, Brammli-Greenberg S. Israel's response to the COVID-19 pandemic: tailoring measures for vulnerable cultural minority populations. Int J Equity Health. 2020;19(1):71. doi:10.1186/s12939-020-01191-7
  9. Spence PR, Lachlan KA, Burke JA. Differences in crisis knowledge across age, race, and socioeconomic status during Hurricane Ike: a field test and extension of the knowledge gap hypothesis. Commun Theory. 2011;21(3):261-278. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2011.01385.x
  10. McQuaid EL, Landier W. Cultural issues in medication adherence: disparities and directions. J Gen Intern Med. 2018;33(2):200-206. doi:10.1007/s11606-017-4199-3
  11. Bish A, Michie S. Demographic and attitudinal determinants of protective behaviours during a pandemic: a review. Br J Health Psychol. 2010;15(Pt 4):797-824. doi:10.1348/135910710x485826
  12. Huang V, Sutermaster S, Caplan Y, Kemp H, Schmutz D, Sgaier SK. Social distancing across vulnerability, race, politics, and employment: how different Americans changed behaviors before and after major COVID-19 policy announcements. medRxiv. 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20119131
  13. Romero T. Racial Differences Prevalent in the Way America Social Distances, Study Finds. Philly Voice; 2020.
  14. Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Ann Intern Med. 1978;88(2):251-258. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-88-2-251
  15. Chen S, Bonanno GA. Psychological adjustment during the global outbreak of COVID-19: a resilience perspective. Psychol Trauma. 2020;12(S1):S51-S54. doi:10.1037/tra0000685
  16. Lee D, Moy N, Tritter J, Paolucci F. The COVID-19 pandemic: global health policy and technology responses in the making. Health Policy Technol. 2020;9(4):397-398. doi:10.1016/j.hlpt.2020.10.001
  17. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Population of Israel by Religion and Religiosity. CBS; 2020. https://www.cbs.gov.il.  Accessed July 20, 2020.
  18. Kalagy T. "Enclave in transition": ways of coping of academics from ultra-Orthodox (haredim) minority group with challenges of integration into the workforce. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(7):2373. doi:10.3390/ijerph17072373
  19. Band-Winterstein T, Freund A. Is it enough to 'speak Haredi'? cultural sensitivity in social workers encountering Jewish ultra-Orthodox clients in Israel. Br J Soc Work. 2015;45(3):968-987. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bct167
  20. Friedman M. The Haredi (Ultra-Orthodox) Society: Sources, Trends and Processes. Jerusalem, Israel: The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies; 1991.
  21. Goodman Y, Witztum E. Cross-cultural encounters between careproviders: rabbis' referral letters to a psychiatric clinic in Israel. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55(8):1309-1323. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(01)00278-7
  22. Hermann T, Anavi O. The 2019 Pre-Elections Survey (in Hebrew); 2019. https://www.idi.org.il/articles/25824
  23. Harpaz A, Herzog S. Police officers' acceptance of community policing strategy in Israel and their attitudes towards the Arab minority. Isr Aff. 2013;19(1):191-213. doi:10.1080/13537121.2013.748294
  24. Smooha S. Still Playing by the Rules: The Index of Arab-Jewish Relations in Israel 2012 (In Hebrew). The Israel Democracy Institute; 2013.
  25. Smooha S. Arabs and Jews in Israel. New York, NY: Routledge; 2018.
  26. The Kenesset. All the Governments of Israel - Thirty-Fourth Government. https://main.knesset.gov.il/EN/mk/government/Pages/governments.aspx.  Accessed July 20, 2020. Published 2020.
  27. Pollak Y, Dayan H, Shoham R, Berger I. Predictors of non-adherence to public health instructions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2020;74(11):602-604. doi:10.1111/pcn.13122
  28. Bodas M, Peleg K. Self-isolation compliance in the COVID-19 era influenced by compensation: findings from a recent survey in Israel. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020;39(6):936-941. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00382
  29. Bodas M, Peleg K. Income assurances are a crucial factor in determining public compliance with self-isolation regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak-cohort study in Israel. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2020;9(1):54. doi:10.1186/s13584-020-00418-w
  30. Bogg T, Milad E. Demographic, personality, and social cognition correlates of coronavirus guideline adherence in a U.S. sample. Health Psychol. 2020;39(12):1026-1036. doi:10.1037/hea0000891
  31. Harper CA, Satchell LP, Fido D, Latzman RD. Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2020:1-14. doi:10.1007/s11469-020-00281-5
  32. Brouard S, Vasilopoulos P, Becher M. Sociodemographic and psychological correlates of compliance with the COVID-19 public health measures in France. Can J Polit Sci. 2020;53(2):253-258. doi:10.1017/s0008423920000335
  33. Bargain O, Aminjonov U. Trust and compliance to public health policies in times of COVID-19. J Public Econ. 2020;192:104316. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104316
  34. Rubin GJ, Amlôt R, Page L, Wessely S. Public perceptions, anxiety, and behaviour change in relation to the swine flu outbreak: cross sectional telephone survey. BMJ. 2009;339:b2651. doi:10.1136/bmj.b2651
  35. Bults M, Beaujean DJ, de Zwart O, et al. Perceived risk, anxiety, and behavioural responses of the general public during the early phase of the Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the Netherlands: results of three consecutive online surveys. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:2. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-2
  36. Schwarzer R, Renner B. Social-cognitive predictors of health behavior: action self-efficacy and coping self-efficacy. Health Psychol. 2000;19(5):487-495.
  37. Poletti P, Ajelli M, Merler S. The effect of risk perception on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza dynamics. PLoS One. 2011;6(2):e16460. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016460
  38. van der Weerd W, Timmermans DR, Beaujean DJ, Oudhoff J, van Steenbergen JE. Monitoring the level of government trust, risk perception and intention of the general public to adopt protective measures during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the Netherlands. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:575. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-575
  39. Blair RA, Morse BS, Tsai LL. Public health and public trust: Survey evidence from the Ebola Virus Disease epidemic in Liberia. Soc Sci Med. 2017;172:89-97. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.016
  40. Vinck P, Pham PN, Bindu KK, Bedford J, Nilles EJ. Institutional trust and misinformation in the response to the 2018-19 Ebola outbreak in North Kivu, DR Congo: a population-based survey. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19(5):529-536. doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(19)30063-5
  41. Rubin GJ, Potts HW, Michie S. The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK. Health Technol Assess. 2010;14(34):183-266. doi:10.3310/hta14340-03
  42. Chan HF, Brumpton M, Macintyre A, et al. How confidence in health care systems affects mobility and compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One. 2020;15(10):e0240644. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0240644
  43. de Bruijn AL, Feldman Y, Kuiper ME, et al. Why did Israelis comply with COVID-19 mitigation measures during the initial first wave lockdown? SSRN. 2020. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3681964
  44. Nivette A, Ribeaud D, Murray A, et al. Non-compliance with COVID-19-related public health measures among young adults in Switzerland: insights from a longitudinal cohort study. Soc Sci Med. 2021;268:113370. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113370
  45. Probst TM, Lee HJ, Bazzoli A. Economic stressors and the enactment of CDC-recommended COVID-19 prevention behaviors: the impact of state-level context. J Appl Psychol. 2020;105(12):1397-1407. doi:10.1037/apl0000797
  46. Shao W, Hao F. Confidence in political leaders can slant risk perceptions of COVID-19 in a highly polarized environment. Soc Sci Med. 2020;261:113235. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113235
  47. Rosenstock IM. Historical origins of the health belief model. Health Educ Monogr. 1974;2(4):328-335. doi:10.1177/109019817400200403
  48. Dyda A, King C, Dey A, Leask J, Dunn AG. A systematic review of studies that measure parental vaccine attitudes and beliefs in childhood vaccination. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1253. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09327-8
  49. Davis JL, Buchanan KL, Green BL. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer prevention beliefs: applying the health belief model framework. Am J Health Promot. 2013;27(6):384-389. doi:10.4278/ajhp.120113-QUAN-15
  50. Janz NK, Becker MH. The Health Belief Model: a decade later. Health Educ Q. 1984;11(1):1-47. doi:10.1177/109019818401100101
  51. Jones CL, Jensen JD, Scherr CL, Brown NR, Christy K, Weaver J. The Health Belief Model as an explanatory framework in communication research: exploring parallel, serial, and moderated mediation. Health Commun. 2015;30(6):566-576. doi:10.1080/10410236.2013.873363
  52. Rogers RW. A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change1. J Psychol. 1975;91(1):93-114. doi:10.1080/00223980.1975.9915803
  53. Olofsson A, Rashid S. The white (male) effect and risk perception: can equality make a difference? Risk Anal. 2011;31(6):1016-1032. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01566.x
  54. Macias T. Environmental risk perception among race and ethnic groups in the United States. Ethnicities. 2016;16(1):111-129. doi:10.1177/1468796815575382
  55. Finucane ML, Slovic P, Mertz CK, Flynn J, Satterfield TA. Gender, race, and perceived risk: the 'white male' effect. Health Risk Soc. 2000;2(2):159-172. doi:10.1080/713670162
  56. Flynn J, Slovic P, Mertz CK. Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks. Risk Anal. 1994;14(6):1101-1108. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.1994.tb00082.x
  57. McKee M, Stuckler D. If the world fails to protect the economy, COVID-19 will damage health not just now but also in the future. Nat Med. 2020;26(5):640-642. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0863-y
  58. Pantoja AD, Segura GM. Does ethnicity matter? descriptive representation in legislatures and political alienation among Latinos. Soc Sci Q. 2003;84(2):441-460. doi:10.1111/1540-6237.8402014
  59. Gofen A, Cohen-Blankshtain G, Ibraheem M. It takes a village to build illegality: minorities' noncompliance as manifestation of distrust. Governance. 2020. doi:10.1111/gove.12528
  60. Spence PR, Lachlan KA, Griffin DR. Crisis communication, race, and natural disasters. J Black Stud. 2007;37(4):539-554. doi:10.1177/0021934706296192
  61. Staerklé C, Sidanius J, Green EGT, Molina LE. Ethnic minority-majority asymmetry in national attitudes around the world: a multilevel analysis. Polit Psychol. 2010;31(4):491-519. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2010.00766.x
  62. Verkuyten M, Martinovic B. Immigrants’ national identification: meanings, determinants, and consequences. Soc Issues Policy Rev. 2012;6(1):82-112. doi:10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01036.x
  63. Hero RE, Tolbert CJ. Minority voices and citizen attitudes about government responsiveness in the American states: do social and institutional context matter? Br J Polit Sci. 2004;34(1):109-121. doi:10.1017/s0007123403000371
  64. Hermann T, Anavi O, Cubbison W, Heller A. The 2019 Israeli Democracy Index (In Hebrew). The Israel Democracy Institute; 2019.
  65. Yagil D, Rattner A. Between commandments and laws: religiosity, political ideology, and legal obedience in Israel. Crime Law Soc Change. 2002;38(2):185-209. doi:10.1023/a:1020254631369
  66. Rattner A, Yagil D, Pedahzur A. Not bound by the law: legal disobedience in Israeli society. Behav Sci Law. 2001;19(2):265-283. doi:10.1002/bsl.435
  67. Rattner A, Yagil D. Taking the law into one's own hands on ideological grounds. Int J Sociol Law. 2004;32(1):85-102. doi:10.1016/j.ijsl.2003.03.001
  68. Lowrance S. Identity, grievances, and political action: recent evidence from the Palestinian community in Israel. Int Polit Sci Rev. 2006;27(2):167-190. doi:10.1177/0192512106061425
  69. Bobo L, Gilliam FD. Race, sociopolitical participation, and black empowerment. Am Polit Sci Rev. 1990;84(2):377-393. doi:10.2307/1963525
  70. Mansbridge J. Should blacks represent blacks and women represent women? a contingent “yes". J Polit. 1999;61(3):628-657. doi:10.2307/2647821
  71. Williams MS. Voice, Trust, and Memory: Marginalized Groups and the Failings of Liberal Representation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2000.
  72. Taragin-Zeller L, Rozenblum Y, Baram-Tsabari A. Public engagement with science among religious minorities: lessons from COVID-19. Sci Commun. 2020;42(5):643-678. doi:10.1177/1075547020962107
  73. David Y, Baden C. Reframing community boundaries: the erosive power of new media spaces in authoritarian societies. Inf Commun Soc. 2020;23(1):110-127. doi:10.1080/1369118x.2018.1486869
  74. Rabinowitz A, Breiner J. Tens of Thousands of Haredi Students Went to School Sunday, Violating Coronavirus Closure. Haaretz; 2020.
  75. Sharon J. Several Ultra-Orthodox Cities to be Removed from Red-Zone List. The Jerusalem Post; 2020.
  76. Zarahovich O. Shortage in computers is more severe in the Arab population and aid is delayed. Globes (In Hebrew). April 27, 2020. https://www.globes.co.il/news/article.aspx?did=1001326646.
  77. Tourangeau R, Yan T. Sensitive questions in surveys. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(5):859-883. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.5.859
  78. Bradburn NM, Sudman S, Blair E, Stocking C. Question threat and response bias. Public Opin Q. 1978;42(2):221-234. doi:10.1086/268444
  79. Gonzalez-Ocantos E, de Jonge CK, Meléndez C, Osorio J, Nickerson DW. Vote Buying and Social Desirability Bias: Experimental Evidence from Nicaragua. Am J Pol Sci. 2012;56(1):202-217. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2011.00540.x
  80. Richman WL, Weisband S, Kiesler S, Drasgow F. A meta-analytic study of social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional questionnaires, and interviews. J Appl Psychol. 1999;84(5):754-775. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.5.754
  81. Krumpal I. Determinants of social desirability bias in sensitive surveys: a literature review. Qual Quant. 2013;47(4):2025-2047. doi:10.1007/s11135-011-9640-9
  82. Crutzen R, Göritz AS. Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:720. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-720
  83. Chao YL, Lam SP. Measuring responsible environmental behavior: self-reported and other-reported measures and their differences in testing a behavioral model. Environ Behav. 2011;43(1):53-71. doi:10.1177/0013916509350849
  84. Ajzen I. From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In: Kuhl J, Beckmann J, eds. Action Control: From Cognition to Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1985. p. 11-39.
  85. Duits A, Duivenvoorden H, Boeke S, Mochtar B, Passchier J, Erdman R. Psychological and somatic factors in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: towards building a psychological framework. Psychol Health. 2002;17(2):159-171. doi:10.1080/08870440290013644
  86. Freberg K. Intention to comply with crisis messages communicated via social media. Public Relat Rev. 2012;38(3):416-421. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.01.008
  87. Berry D, Michas I, Bersellini E. Communicating information about medication side effects: effects on satisfaction, perceived risk to health, and intention to comply. Psychol Health. 2002;17(3):247-267. doi:10.1080/08870440290029520a
  88. Betsch C, Böhm R, Korn L, Holtmann C. On the benefits of explaining herd immunity in vaccine advocacy. Nat Hum Behav. 2017;1(3):0056. doi:10.1038/s41562-017-0056
  89. Reininger BM, Raja Alam S, Sanchez Carrasco A, et al. Intention to comply with mandatory hurricane evacuation orders among persons living along a coastal area. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2013;7(1):46-54. doi:10.1001/dmp.2012.57
  90. Lunn PD, Timmons S, Belton CA, Barjaková M, Julienne H, Lavin C. Motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic: an online experiment. Soc Sci Med. 2020;265:113478. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113478
  91. Gordoni G, Schmidt P. The decision to participate in social surveys: the case of the Arab minority in Israel—an application of the theory of reasoned action. Int J Public Opin Res. 2010;22(3):364-391. doi:10.1093/ijpor/edq022
  92. Francis J, Eccles MP, Johnston M, et al. Constructing Questionnaires Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A Manual for Health Services Researchers. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Centre for Health Services Research, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; 2004.
  93. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav. 1983;24(4):385-396.
  94. Martin KS, Rogers BL, Cook JT, Joseph HM. Social capital is associated with decreased risk of hunger. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58(12):2645-2654. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.09.026
  95. Miller AH. political issues and trust in government: 1964-1970. Am Polit Sci Rev. 1974;68(3):951-972. doi:10.2307/1959140
  96. Kang S, Van Ryzin GG. Coproduction and trust in government: evidence from survey experiments. Public Manag Rev. 2019;21(11):1646-1664. doi:10.1080/14719037.2019.1619812
  97. Jhummon-Mahadnac ND, Knott J, Marshall C. A cross-sectional study of pandemic influenza health literacy and the effect of a public health campaign. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:377. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-377
  98. Shim M, You M. Cognitive and affective risk perceptions toward food safety outbreaks: mediating the relation between news use and food consumption intention. Asian J Commun. 2015;25(1):48-64. doi:10.1080/01292986.2014.989242
  99. Freimuth VS, Jamison A, Hancock G, Musa D, Hilyard K, Quinn SC. The role of risk perception in flu vaccine behavior among African-American and White adults in the United States. Risk Anal. 2017;37(11):2150-2163. doi:10.1111/risa.12790
  100. Taber KS. The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Res Sci Educ. 2018;48(6):1273-1296. doi:10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2
  101. van Griethuijsen RALF, van Eijck MW, Haste H, et al. Global patterns in students’ views of science and interest in science. Res Sci Educ. 2015;45(4):581-603. doi:10.1007/s11165-014-9438-6
  102. Alcaraz-Corona S, Cantú-Mata JL, Torres-Castillo F. Exploratory factor analysis for software development projects in Mexico. Stat Optim Inf Comput. 2019;7(1):85-96. doi:10.19139/soic.v7i1.512
  103. Rubin AM. Uses-and-gratifications perspective on media effects. In: Bryant‏ J, Oliver MB, eds. Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. 3rd ed. Routledge; 2009. p. 165-184.
  104. Harris DM, Guten S. Health-protective behavior: an exploratory study. J Health Soc Behav. 1979;20(1):17-29. doi:10.2307/2136475
  105. Gilles I, Bangerter A, Clémence A, et al. Trust in medical organizations predicts pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination behavior and perceived efficacy of protection measures in the Swiss public. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26(3):203-210. doi:10.1007/s10654-011-9577-2
  106. Prati G, Pietrantoni L, Zani B. Compliance with recommendations for pandemic influenza H1N1 2009: the role of trust and personal beliefs. Health Educ Res. 2011;26(5):761-769. doi:10.1093/her/cyr035
  107. Quinn SC, Parmer J, Freimuth VS, Hilyard KM, Musa D, Kim KH. Exploring communication, trust in government, and vaccination intention later in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: results of a national survey. Biosecur Bioterror. 2013;11(2):96-106. doi:10.1089/bsp.2012.0048
  108. Johnson TP, van de Vijver FJR. Social desirability in cross-cultural research. In: Cross-Cultural Survey Methods. Wiley; 2003. p. 193-209.
  109. Enosh G, Ben-Ari A. Perceiving the other: hostile and danger attributions among Jewish and Arab social work students in Israel. Eur J Soc Work. 2013;16(3):427-442. doi:10.1080/13691457.2012.725033
  110. Alkalay S, Dolev A. Public educational psychology services in Israel on the internet. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2019;8(1):31. doi:10.1186/s13584-019-0298-4
  111. Shadmi E. Healthcare disparities amongst vulnerable populations of Arabs and Jews in Israel. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2018;7(1):26. doi:10.1186/s13584-018-0226-z
  112. Billig M. Is my home my castle? place attachment, risk perception, and religious faith. Environ Behav. 2006;38(2):248-265. doi:10.1177/0013916505277608
  113. Slimak MW, Dietz T. Personal values, beliefs, and ecological risk perception. Risk Anal. 2006;26(6):1689-1705. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00832.x
  114. Sjöberg L, Wåhlberg Aa. Risk perception and new age beliefs. Risk Anal. 2002;22(4):751-764. doi:10.1111/0272-4332.00066
  115. Almutairi AF, BaniMustafa A, Alessa YM, Almutairi SB, Almaleh Y. Public trust and compliance with the precautionary measures against COVID-19 employed by authorities in Saudi Arabia. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2020;13:753-760. doi:10.2147/rmhp.s257287
  116. Waxman D. Living with terror, not living in terror: the impact of chronic terrorism on Israeli society. In: Kennedy-Pipe C, Clubb G, Mabon S, eds. Terrorism and Political Violence. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2015.p. 181-196. doi:10.4135/9781473917248.n14
  117. Bar-Tal D. Why does fear override hope in societies engulfed by intractable conflict, as it does in the Israeli society? Polit Psychol. 2001;22(3):601-627. doi:10.1111/0162-895x.00255
  118. Yair G. Israeli existential anxiety: cultural trauma and the constitution of national character. Soc Identities. 2014;20(4-5):346-362. doi:10.1080/13504630.2014.1002390
  119. Popper-Giveon A, Keshet Y. "It's every family's dream": choice of a medical career among the Arab minority in Israel. J Immigr Minor Health. 2016;18(5):1148-1158. doi:10.1007/s10903-015-0252-7
  120. Wenzel JP. Acculturation effects on trust in national and local government among Mexican Americans. Soc Sci Q. 2006;87(5):1073-1087. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00416.x
  121. Röder A, Mühlau P. What determines the trust of immigrants in criminal justice institutions in Europe? Eur J Criminol. 2012;9(4):370-387. doi:10.1177/1477370812447265
  122. Licht AN. Social norms and the law: why peoples obey the law. Rev Law Econ. 2008;4(3):715-750. doi:10.2202/1555-5879.1232
  123. Posner EA. Symbols, signals, and social norms in politics and the law. J Legal Stud. 1998;27(S2):765-797. doi:10.1086/468042
  124. Sergent K, Stajkovic AD. Women's leadership is associated with fewer deaths during the COVID-19 crisis: quantitative and qualitative analyses of United States governors. J Appl Psychol. 2020;105(8):771-783. doi:10.1037/apl0000577
  125. Marciano H, Kimhi S, Eshel Y. Predictors of individual, community and national resiliencies of Israeli Jews and Arabs. Int J Psychol. 2020;55(4):553-561. doi:10.1002/ijop.12636
  126. Christensen T, Lægreid P. Balancing governance capacity and legitimacy-how the Norwegian government handled the COVID-19 crisis as a high performer. Public Adm Rev. 2020. doi:10.1111/puar.13241
Volume 11, Issue 7
July 2022
Pages 1172-1186
  • Receive Date: 06 October 2020
  • Revise Date: 21 February 2021
  • Accept Date: 08 March 2021
  • First Publish Date: 31 March 2021