Ultra-Processed Profits: The Political Economy of Countering the Global Spread of Ultra-Processed Foods – A Synthesis Review on the Market and Political Practices of Transnational Food Corporations and Strategic Public Health Responses

Document Type : Original Article


1 Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

2 College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia

3 International Center for Equity in Health, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil

4 Indonesian Adolescent Health Association, Jakarta, Indonesia

5 Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia


Ultra-processed food (UPF) and Ultra-processed beverage (UPB) consumption is associated with higher risks of numerous non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Yet global consumption of these products is rising due to profound changes in production, processing, manufacturing, marketing, retail, and consumption practices, alongside the growth of the resources and political influence of Big Food. Whilst the sales of UPFs and UPBs in high-income countries (HICs) are stagnating, sales are rapidly expanding in more populous middle-income countries (MICs). In this paper, we adopt a political economy of food systems approach to understand how growth of Big Food in MICs drives the NCD pandemic.
We conducted a mixed methods synthesis review. This involved quantitative data collection and development of descriptive statistics; a search for academic, market and grey literature on the expansion of UPF in MICs; and the development of themes, three illustrative case examples (South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia), and synthesis of the enablers of successful campaigns in MICs into recommendations for public health campaigns.
We project that the combined sales volume of UPFs in MICs will reach equivalency with HICs by 2024, and the total sales volume of UPBs in MICs is already significantly higher than in HICs. Similarly, annual growth in UPF sales is higher in MICs compared to HICs. We also show how Big Food has entrenched its presence within MICs through establishing global production and hyper-local distribution networks, scaling up its marketing, challenging government policies and scientific expertise, and co-opting civil society. We argue that public health can counter the influence of Big Food by developing an expanded global network of driven and passionate people with diverse skillsets, and advocating for increased government leadership.
The projected increase in sales of UPFs and UPBs in MICs raises major concerns about the global capacity to prevent and treat NCDs.



"Watch the Special Issue Video Summary"


  Check the full list of "Political Economy of Healthy and Sustainable Food Systems" special issue here


  1. Kickbusch I, Allen L, Franz C. The commercial determinants of health. Lancet Glob Health. 2016;4(12):e895-e896. doi:10.1016/s2214-109x(16)30217-0
  2. Madureira Lima J, Galea S. Corporate practices and health: a framework and mechanisms. Global Health. 2018;14(1):21. doi:10.1186/s12992-018-0336-y
  3. Stuckler D, McKee M, Ebrahim S, Basu S. Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco. PLoS Med. 2012;9(6):e1001235. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001235
  4. Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020;396(10258):1223-1249. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30752-2
  5. Hall KD, Ayuketah A, Brychta R, et al. Ultra-processed diets cause excess calorie intake and weight gain: an inpatient randomized controlled trial of ad libitum food intake. Cell Metab. 2019;30(1):67-77.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2019.05.008
  6. Baker P, Machado P, Santos T, et al. Ultra-processed foods and the nutrition transition: global, regional and national trends, food systems transformations and political economy drivers. Obes Rev. 2020;21(12):e13126. doi:10.1111/obr.13126
  7. Moodie R, Stuckler D, Monteiro C, et al. Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Lancet. 2013;381(9867):670-679. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(12)62089-3
  8. Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet. 2011;378(9793):804-814. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(11)60813-1
  9. Vandevijvere S, Jaacks LM, Monteiro CA, et al. Global trends in ultraprocessed food and drink product sales and their association with adult body mass index trajectories. Obes Rev. 2019;20 Suppl 2:10-19. doi:10.1111/obr.12860
  10. Elizabeth L, Machado P, Zinöcker M, Baker P, Lawrence M. Ultra-processed foods and health outcomes: a narrative review. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):1955. doi:10.3390/nu12071955
  11. Pagliai G, Dinu M, Madarena MP, Bonaccio M, Iacoviello L, Sofi F. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2021;125(3):308-318. doi:10.1017/s0007114520002688
  12. Chen X, Zhang Z, Yang H, et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and health outcomes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies. Nutr J. 2020;19(1):86. doi:10.1186/s12937-020-00604-1
  13. Delemare Tangpuori A, Harding-Rolls G, Urbancic N, Banegas Zallio XP. Talking Trash: The Corporate Playbook of False Solutions to the Plastics Crisis. London: Changing Minds Foundation; 2020.
  14. Break Free From Plastic. Break Free from Plastic Brand Audit 2020. Break Free From Plastic 2020; https://www.breakfreefromplastic.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/BFFP-2020-Brand-Audit-Report.pdf. Accessed December 10, 2020.
  15. Scrinis G. Ultra-processed foods and the corporate capture of nutrition-an essay by Gyorgy Scrinis. BMJ. 2020;371:m4601. doi:10.1136/bmj.m4601
  16. Anaf J, Baum FE, Fisher M, Harris E, Friel S. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald's Australia. Global Health. 2017;13(1):7. doi:10.1186/s12992-016-0230-4
  17. Jahiel RI. Corporation-induced diseases, upstream epidemiologic surveillance, and urban health. J Urban Health. 2008;85(4):517-531. doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9283-x
  18. Mialon M, Swinburn B, Sacks G. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information. Obes Rev. 2015;16(7):519-530. doi:10.1111/obr.12289
  19. Popkin BM. Nutrition, agriculture and the global food system in low and middle income countries. Food Policy. 2014;47:91-96. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.05.001
  20. Basu S, McKee M, Galea G, Stuckler D. Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(11):2071-2077. doi:10.2105/ajph.2012.300974
  21. Lin TK, Teymourian Y, Tursini MS. The effect of sugar and processed food imports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 172 countries. Global Health. 2018;14(1):35. doi:10.1186/s12992-018-0344-y
  22. World Health Organization (WHO). Fiscal Policies for Diet and Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases: Technical Meeting Report 5-6 March 2015. Geneva: WHO; 2015.
  23. Hawkes C, Jewell J, Allen K. A food policy package for healthy diets and the prevention of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: the NOURISHING framework. Obes Rev. 2013;14 Suppl 2:159-168. doi:10.1111/obr.12098
  24. World Health Organization (WHO). Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
  25. World Health Organization (WHO). Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. Geneva: WHO; 2017.
  26. Freudenberg N. Lethal But Legal: Corporations, Consumption, and Protecting Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press; 2014.
  27. Greenhalgh S. Making China safe for Coke: how Coca-Cola shaped obesity science and policy in China. BMJ. 2019;364(8183):k5050. doi:10.1136/bmj.k5050
  28. Wiist WH. The Bottom Line or Public Health: Tactics Corporations Use to Influence Health and Health Policy, and What We Can Do to Counter Them. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010.
  29. Knai C, Petticrew M, Mays N, et al. Systems thinking as a framework for analyzing commercial determinants of health. Milbank Q. 2018;96(3):472-498. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12339
  30. Baum FE, Sanders DM, Fisher M, et al. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: its importance and a framework. Global Health. 2016;12(1):27. doi:10.1186/s12992-016-0164-x
  31. McCambridge J, Coleman R, McEachern J. Public health surveillance studies of alcohol industry market and political strategies: a systematic review. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2019;80(2):149-157. doi:10.15288/jsad.2019.80.149
  32. Sacks G, Swinburn B, Kraak V, et al. A proposed approach to monitor private-sector policies and practices related to food environments, obesity and non-communicable disease prevention. Obes Rev. 2013;14 Suppl 1:38-48. doi:10.1111/obr.12074
  33. Stillman F, Hoang M, Linton R, Ritthiphakdee B, Trochim W. Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance. Tob Control. 2008;17(1):e1. doi:10.1136/tc.2006.017988
  34. Trochim WM, Stillman FA, Clark PI, Schmitt CL. Development of a model of the tobacco industry's interference with tobacco control programmes. Tob Control. 2003;12(2):140-147. doi:10.1136/tc.12.2.140
  35. Wiist WH. Public health and the anticorporate movement: rationale and recommendations. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(8):1370-1375. doi:10.2105/ajph.2005.072298
  36. Moodie AR. What public health practitioners need to know about unhealthy industry tactics. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(7):1047-1049. doi:10.2105/ajph.2017.303861
  37. Baker P, Friel S. Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia. Obes Rev. 2014;15(7):564-577. doi:10.1111/obr.12174
  38. Machado PP, Steele EM, Levy RB, et al. Ultra-processed foods and recommended intake levels of nutrients linked to non-communicable diseases in Australia: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2019;9(8):e029544. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029544
  39. Martínez Steele E, Baraldi LG, Louzada ML, Moubarac JC, Mozaffarian D, Monteiro CA. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016;6(3):e009892. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009892
  40. Setyowati D, Andarwulan N, Giriwono PE. Processed and ultraprocessed food consumption pattern in the Jakarta Individual Food Consumption Survey 2014. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(4):840-847. doi:10.6133/apjcn.062017.01
  41. Costa Louzada ML, Martins AP, Canella DS, et al. Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2015;49:38. doi:10.1590/s0034-8910.2015049006132
  42. Marrón-Ponce JA, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Louzada M, Batis C. Energy contribution of NOVA food groups and sociodemographic determinants of ultra-processed food consumption in the Mexican population. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21(1):87-93. doi:10.1017/s1368980017002129
  43. Baker P, Friel S. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia. Global Health. 2016;12(1):80. doi:10.1186/s12992-016-0223-3
  44. Wiist WH. The corporate play book, health, and democracy: the snack food and beverage industry's tactics in context. In: Stuckler D, Siegel K, eds. Sick Societies: Responding to the Global Challenge of Chronic Disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011:204-216.
  45. Baron DP. Integrated strategy: market and nonmarket components. Calif Manage Rev. 1995;37(2):47-65. doi:10.2307/41165788
  46. Clapp J. Financialization, distance and global food politics. J Peasant Stud. 2014;41(5):797-814. doi:10.1080/03066150.2013.875536
  47. Fuchs D, Kalfagianni A. The causes and consequences of private food governance. Bus Polit. 2010;12(3):145-181. doi:10.2202/1469-3569.1319
  48. Otero G. The Neoliberal Diet. Austin: University of Texas Press; 2018.
  49. Hawkes C. The role of foreign direct investment in the nutrition transition. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(4):357-365. doi:10.1079/phn2004706
  50. Hawkes C. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Global Health. 2006;2:4. doi:10.1186/1744-8603-2-4
  51. Coca-Cola. The World's Largest Beverage Distribution System. Coca-Cola. 2020; https://investors.coca-colacompany.com/about/coca-cola-system. Accessed September 3, 2020.
  52. McDonald's. 2019 Annual Report. Chicago: McDonald's; 2019.
  53. Baker P, Kay A, Walls H. Trade and investment liberalization and Asia's noncommunicable disease epidemic: a synthesis of data and existing literature. Global Health. 2014;10:66. doi:10.1186/s12992-014-0066-8
  54. Euromonitor International. Nestlé SA in Packaged Food (World). London: Euromonitor International; 2019.
  55. Baum F. The New Public Health. 4th ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2015.
  56. Hawkes C. Dietary implications of supermarket development: a global perspective. Dev Policy Rev. 2008;26(6):657-692. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7679.2008.00428.x
  57. Machado PP, Claro RM, Canella DS, Sarti FM, Levy RB. Price and convenience: the influence of supermarkets on consumption of ultra-processed foods and beverages in Brazil. Appetite. 2017;116:381-388. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.027
  58. Garfield L. Nestlé is sailing Amazon rivers to sell its candy and chocolate pudding to the backwoods of Brazil. Business Insider Australia. 2017; https://www.businessinsider.com.au/nestl-expands-brazil-river-barge-2017-9. Accessed July 20, 2020.
  59. Dantas I, Mulier T. Nestlé to sail Amazon tributaries to reach consumers. The Seattle Times. 2010; https://www.seattletimes.com/business/nestl-to-sail-amazon-tributaries-to-reach-consumers/. Accessed July 20, 2020.
  60. World Health Organization (WHO). Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children. Geneva: WHO; 2010.
  61. Microsoft. Exploring Digital ROI for FMCG Brands. New York: Microsoft; 2013.
  62. Montgomery K, Chester J, Nixon L, Levy L, Dorfman L. Big Data and the transformation of food and beverage marketing: undermining efforts to reduce obesity? Crit Public Health. 2019;29(1):110-117. doi:10.1080/09581596.2017.1392483
  63. Zuboff S. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power. New York: Public Affairs; 2018:4.
  64. Facebook For Business. Introducing New Ways to Buy, Optimise and Measure Ads for a Mobile World. Facebook. 2015; https://en-gb.facebook.com/business/news/Ad-Week-UK. Accessed October 11, 2020.
  65. Kim Y. Consumer responses to the food industry’s proactive and passive environmental CSR, factoring in price as CSR tradeoff. J Bus Ethics. 2017;140(2):307-321. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2671-8
  66. Mialon M, McCambridge J. Alcohol industry corporate social responsibility initiatives and harmful drinking: a systematic review. Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(4):664-673. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cky065
  67. Ghoul SE, Guedhami O, Kim Y. Country-level institutions, firm value, and the role of corporate social responsibility initiatives. J Int Bus Stud. 2017;48(3):360-385. doi:10.1057/jibs.2016.4
  68. Parker LA, Zaragoza GA, Hernández-Aguado I. Promoting population health with public-private partnerships: where's the evidence? BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1438. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7765-2
  69. Richter J. Public Private Partnerships and International Health Policy-Making: How can Public Interests be Safeguarded? Helsinki: Hakapaino Oy; 2004.
  70. Carter SM. Going below the line: creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market. Tob Control. 2003;12 Suppl 3:iii87-94. doi:10.1136/tc.12.suppl_3.iii87
  71. Henriksen L. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place. Tob Control. 2012;21(2):147-153. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050416
  72. Franz C, Kickbusch I. The capital-NCD-nexus: the commercial determinants of health and global capital flows. Eurohealth. 2018;24(3):21-25.
  73. Chan M. Opening Address, 8th Global Conference on Health Promotion. World Health Organization; 2013; https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2013/health_promotion_20130610/en/. Accessed July 20, 2020.
  74. Carriedo A, Koon AD, Encarnación LM, Lee K, Smith R, Walls H. The political economy of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation in Latin America: lessons from Mexico, Chile and Colombia. Global Health. 2021;17(1):5. doi:10.1186/s12992-020-00656-2.
  75. Donovan RJ, Anwar McHenry J, Vines AJ. Unity of effort requires unity of object: why industry should not be involved in formulating public health policy. J Public Aff. 2015;15(4):397-403. doi:10.1002/pa.1553
  76. Nestle M. Food Politics. 1st ed. Berkley: University of California Press; 2013:95.
  77. Allen LN. Commercial determinants of global health. In: Haring R, Kickbusch I, Ganten D, Moeti M, eds. Handbook of Global Health. New York: Springer; 2020.
  78. Mialon M, Gomes FDS. Public health and the ultra-processed food and drink products industry: corporate political activity of major transnationals in Latin America and the Caribbean. Public Health Nutr. 2019;22(10):1898-1908. doi:10.1017/s1368980019000417
  79. Crosbie E, Carriedo A, Schmidt L. Hollow threats: transnational food and beverage companies' use of international agreements to fight front-of-pack nutrition labeling in Mexico and beyond. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2020. doi:10.34172/ijhpm.2020.146
  80. Mialon M, Gaitan Charry DA, Cediel G, Crosbie E, Scagliusi FB, Perez Tamayo EM. 'I had never seen so many lobbyists': food industry political practices during the development of a new nutrition front-of-pack labelling system in Colombia. Public Health Nutr. 2020:1-9. doi:10.1017/s1368980020002268
  81. Théodore FL, Tolentino-Mayo L, Hernández-Zenil E, et al. Pitfalls of the self-regulation of advertisements directed at children on Mexican television. Pediatr Obes. 2017;12(4):312-319. doi:10.1111/ijpo.12144
  82. Hawkes C, Harris JL. An analysis of the content of food industry pledges on marketing to children. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(8):1403-1414. doi:10.1017/s1368980011000607
  83. Cetthakrikul N, Phulkerd S, Jaichuen N, Sacks G, Tangcharoensathien V. Assessment of the stated policies of prominent food companies related to obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention in Thailand. Global Health. 2019;15(1):12. doi:10.1186/s12992-019-0458-x
  84. Kelly B, Vandevijvere S, Ng S, et al. Global benchmarking of children's exposure to television advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages across 22 countries. Obes Rev. 2019;20 Suppl 2:116-128. doi:10.1111/obr.12840
  85. Obesity Policy Coalition. Overbranded, Underprotected: How Industry Self-Regulation is Failing to Protect Children from Unhealthy Food Marketing. Melbourne: Obesity Policy Coalition; 2018.
  86. Herrick C. Shifting blame/selling health: corporate social responsibility in the age of obesity. Sociol Health Illn. 2009;31(1):51-65. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9566.2008.01121.x
  87. Mialon M, Jaramillo Á, Caro P, et al. Involvement of the food industry in nutrition conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. Public Health Nutr. 2021;24(6):1559-1565. doi:10.1017/s1368980020003870
  88. Clapp J, Scrinis G. Big food, nutritionism, and corporate power. Globalizations. 2017;14(4):578-595. doi:10.1080/14747731.2016.1239806
  89. Jenkin GL, Signal L, Thomson G. Framing obesity: the framing contest between industry and public health at the New Zealand inquiry into obesity. Obes Rev. 2011;12(12):1022-1030. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00918.x
  90. Jacobs A. A Shadowy Industry Group Shapes Food Policy Around the World. The New York Times. 2019; https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/16/health/ilsi-food-policy-india-brazil-china.html. Accessed August 5, 2020.
  91. Scott-Railton J, Marczak B, Guarnieri C, Crete-Nishihata M. Bitter Sweet: Supporters of Mexico’s Soda Tax Targeted with NSO Exploit Links. Toronto: Citizen Lab; 2017.
  92. O Joio E O Trigo. The Deep Pockets of Obesity Science. O Joio E O Trigo 2018; https://ojoioeotrigo.com.br/2018/02/the-deep-pockets-of-obesity-science/. Accessed November 2, 2020.
  93. O'Connor A. Coca-Cola Funds Scientists Who Shift Blame for Obesity Away From Bad Diets. The New York Times. 2015; https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/08/09/coca-cola-funds-scientists-who-shift-blame-for-obesity-away-from-bad-diets/. Accessed September 17, 2020.
  94. Gómez EJ. Coca-Cola's political and policy influence in Mexico: understanding the role of institutions, interests and divided society. Health Policy Plan. 2019;34(7):520-528. doi:10.1093/heapol/czz063
  95. Ojeda E, Torres C, Carriedo Á, Mialon M, Parekh N, Orozco E. The influence of the sugar-sweetened beverage industry on public policies in Mexico. Int J Public Health. 2020;65(7):1037-1044. doi:10.1007/s00038-020-01414-2
  96. Lacy-Nichols J, Scrinis G, Carey R. The politics of voluntary self-regulation: insights from the development and promotion of the Australian Beverages Council's Commitment. Public Health Nutr. 2020;23(3):564-575. doi:10.1017/s1368980019002003
  97. Mialon M, Swinburn B, Sacks G. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information. Obes Rev. 2015;16(7):519-530. doi:10.1111/obr.12289
  98. Global Nutrition Report. South Africa Nutrition Profile. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
  99. Ndinda C, Ndhlovu TP, Juma P, Asiki G, Kyobutungi C. The evolution of non-communicable diseases policies in post-apartheid South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(Suppl 2):956. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5832-8
  100. Igumbor EU, Sanders D, Puoane TR, et al. "Big food," the consumer food environment, health, and the policy response in South Africa. PLoS Med. 2012;9(7):e1001253. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001253
  101. Kroll F, Swart EC, Annan RA, et al. Mapping obesogenic food environments in South Africa and Ghana: correlations and contradictions. Sustainability. 2019;11(14):3924. doi:10.3390/su11143924
  102. Delobelle P, Sanders D, Puoane T, Freudenberg N. Reducing the role of the food, tobacco, and alcohol industries in noncommunicable disease risk in South Africa. Health Educ Behav. 2016;43(1 Suppl):70S-81S. doi:10.1177/1090198115610568
  103. Moodley G, Christofides N, Norris SA, Achia T, Hofman KJ. Obesogenic environments: access to and advertising of sugar-sweetened beverages in Soweto, South Africa, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12:E186. doi:10.5888/pcd12.140559
  104. Stacey N, van Walbeek C, Maboshe M, Tugendhaft A, Hofman K. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa. Prev Med. 2017;105 Suppl:S32-S36. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.05.011
  105. Mialon M, Crosbie E, Sacks G. Mapping of food industry strategies to influence public health policy, research and practice in South Africa. Int J Public Health. 2020;65(7):1027-1036. doi:10.1007/s00038-020-01407-1
  106. South African Government. Basic Education on Nestlé for Healthier Kids initiative. 2018; https://www.gov.za/speeches/basic-education-nestlé-healthier-kids-initiative-15-may-2018-0000. Accessed August 10, 2020.
  107. Euromonitor International. The Coca-Cola Company in Soft Drinks (World). London: Euromonitor International; 2019.
  108. Moses CT, Vest D. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo in South Africa: a landmark case in corporate social responsibility, ethical dilemmas, and the challenges of international business. J Afr Bus. 2010;11(2):235-251. doi:10.1080/15228916.2010.509166
  109. Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola 2010 Annual Review. Atlanta: The Coca-Cola Company; 2010.
  110. Fooks GJ, Williams S, Box G, Sacks G. Corporations' use and misuse of evidence to influence health policy: a case study of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation. Global Health. 2019;15(1):56. doi:10.1186/s12992-019-0495-5
  111. Cassim S. Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping the terrain. South Afr J Clin Nutr. 2010;23(4):181-185. doi:10.1080/16070658.2010.11734335
  112. Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA). The South African Marketing to Children Pledge. Johannesburg: CGCSA; 2009.
  113. McHiza ZJ, Temple NJ, Steyn NP, Abrahams Z, Clayford M. Content analysis of television food advertisements aimed at adults and children in South Africa. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(12):2213-2220. doi:10.1017/s136898001300205x
  114. Temple NJ, Steyn NP, Nadomane Z. Food advertisements on children's programs on TV in South Africa. Nutrition. 2008;24(7-8):781-782. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2008.03.019
  115. Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar. Resumen Ejecutivo: Primeros Resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional en Colombia - ENSIN 2015. Bogotá: Government of Colombia; 2015.
  116. World Health Organization (WHO). Colombia – Diabetes Country Profiles 2016. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
  117. Jacobs A, Richtel M. She Took On Colombia’s Soda Industry. Then She Was Silenced. The New York Times. 2017; https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/13/health/colombia-soda-tax-obesity.html. Accessed July 20, 2020.
  118. Postobón. Informe de Gestión 2016. Medellín: Postobón; 2016.
  119. El Tiempo. La barranquillera Promigas, entre las empresas innovadoras de Colombia. El Tiempo, 2016; https://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-16565286. Accessed October 23, 2020.
  120. FEMSA. FEMSA Foundation. FEMSA. 2020; https://www.femsa.com/en/femsa-foundation/. Accessed July 20, 2020.
  121. Portafolio. Coca-Cola: ‘Invertimos 200 millones de dólares al año en Colombia.’ Portafolio. 2016; https://www.portafolio.co/economia/empleo/coca-cola-invertimos-200-millones-dolares-ano-colombia-497591. Accessed July 20, 2020.
  122. World Health Organization (WHO). Indonesia – Noncommunicable Diseases Country Profiles 2018. Geneva: WHO; 2018.
  123. Mboi N, Murty Surbakti I, Trihandini I, et al. On the road to universal health care in Indonesia, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2018;392(10147):581-591. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(18)30595-6
  124. Indonesian Ministry of Health. Hasil Riskesdas 2018 [Main Results of Basic Health Survey 2018]. Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Health; 2018.
  125. Badan Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics/Statistics Indonesia). Rata-rata Konsumsi Kalori per Kapita Sehari Menurut Kelompok Makanan (KKal), 2013-2014 [Average Daily Calorie Consumption per Capita by Food Group (kCal), 2013-2014]. Badan Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics/Statistics Indonesia). 2014; https://www.bps.go.id/indicator/5/55/1/rata-rata-konsumsi-kalori-per-kapita-sehari-menurut-kelompok-makanan.html. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  126. European Commission. The Food and Beverage Market Entry Handbook: Indonesia: A Practical Guide to the Market in Indonesia for European Agri-Food Products. Brussels: European Commission; 2016.
  127. Gideon A. Belanja Iklan TV Capai Rp 96,8 Triliun Sepanjang 2016. Liputan6. 2017; https://www.liputan6.com/bisnis/read/2825117/belanja-iklan-tv-capai-rp-968-triliun-sepanjang-2016. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  128. Statista. Average time watching TV in Indonesia from 2014 to 2018. Statista. 2019; https://www.statista.com/statistics/1051382/indonesia-average-time-watching-tv/. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  129. Hendriyani, Hollander E, d'Haenens L, Beentjes JWJ. Children's media use in Indonesia. Asian J Commun. 2012;22(3):304-319. doi:10.1080/01292986.2012.662514
  130. Gideon A. Belanja Iklan TV 2017 Capai Rp 145 Triliun, Terbesar Masih Televisi. Liputan6. 2018; https://www.liputan6.com/bisnis/read/3248970/belanja-iklan-2017-capai-rp-145-triliun-terbesar-masih-televisi. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  131. Widowati H. Tumbuh 13%, Belanja Iklan Televisi Tembus Rp 110 Triliun Tahun 2018. Katadata.co.id. 2018; https://katadata.co.id/hariwidowati/digital/5e9a5576a51e4/tumbuh-13-belanja-iklan-televisi-tembus-rp-110-triliun-tahun-2018. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  132. Consumers International. The Junk Food Generation: A Multi-Country Survey of the Influence of Television Advertisements on Children. Kuala Lumpur: Consumers International; n.d.
  133. Ministry of Industry Republic of Indonesia. Analisis Perkembangan Industri [Industrial Development Analysis]. Ministry of Industry, Republic of Indonesia. 2019; https://kemenperin.go.id/download/21653/Laporan-Analisis-Perkembangan-Industri-Edisi-I-2019. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  134. Farhan F. Nestle Investasi Rp 1,4 Triliun untuk Perluas Tiga Pabrik di Indonesia. Kompas.com. 2019; https://money.kompas.com/read/2019/07/31/190353026/nestle-investasi-rp-14-triliun-untuk-perluas-tiga-pabrik-di-indonesia. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  135. Ministry of Industry Republic of Indonesia. Indonesia’s Fourth Industrial Revolution: Making Indonesia 4.0. Ministry of Industry, Republic of Indonesia. 2018; https://www.kemenperin.go.id/download/19347. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  136. Company-Community Partnerships for Health Indonesia (CCPHI). Nestlé Healthy Kids: Bringing Healthier Indonesian Children into Reality: Partnership between Nestlé Indonesia and Indonesian Nutrition Association. Jakarta: CCPHI; 2013.
  137. Kompas.com. Dukung Kemensos, Nestle Bantu Masyarakat Terdampak Covid-19. Kompas.com. 2020; https://biz.kompas.com/read/2020/07/03/225437728/kolaborasi-nestl-indonesia-dan-menko-marves-bantu-2000-pekerja-pemungut-sampah. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  138. Ministry of Industry Republic of Indonesia. Industri Makanan dan Minuman Masih Jadi Andalan. Ministry of Industry, Republic of Indonesia. 2017; https://kemenperin.go.id/artikel/18465/Industri-Makanan-dan-Minuman-Masih-Jadi-Andalan. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  139. Kompas.com. Bantu Atasi Pandemi Corona, Coca-Cola Donasikan Rp 10 Miliar ke PMI Kompas.com. 2020; https://money.kompas.com/read/2020/04/14/171441626/bantu-atasi-pandemi-corona-coca-cola-donasikan-rp-10-miliar-ke-pmi. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  140. Wartakotallive.com. Mondelez Indonesia Donasi Miliaran Rupiah dalam Beragam Bentuk via Cadbury, Biskuat, dan Cocoa Life. Wartakotallive.com. 2020; https://wartakota.tribunnews.com/2020/08/08/mondelez-indonesia-donasi-miliaran-rupiah-dalam-beragam-bentuk-via-cadbury-biskuat-dan-cocoa-life. Accessed August 20, 2020.
  141. Whitehead R. Soda tax could cost 120,000 Indonesian jobs. Food Navigator Asia. 2015; https://www.foodnavigator-asia.com/Article/2015/12/17/Soda-tax-could-cost-120-000-Indonesian-jobs. Accessed August 5, 2020.
  142. Whitehead R. Indonesia inches closer to stealth sugar tax. Beverage Daily. 2020; https://www.beveragedaily.com/Article/2020/02/26/Indonesia-inches-closer-to-stealth-sugar-tax. Accessed August 5, 2020.
  143. Daube M. Forty years on - tobacco control then and now. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2013;37(4):303-304. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12075
  144. World Health Organization (WHO). "Best Buys" and Other Recommended Interventions for the Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva: WHO; 2017.
  145. Mialon M, Vandevijvere S, Carriedo-Lutzenkirchen A, et al. Mechanisms for addressing and managing the influence of corporations on public health policy, research and practice: a scoping review. BMJ Open. 2020;10(7):e034082. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034082
  146. James E, Lajous M, Reich MR. The politics of taxes for health: an analysis of the passage of the sugar-sweetened beverage tax in Mexico. Health Syst Reform. 2020;6(1):e1669122. doi:10.1080/23288604.2019.1669122
  147. Potempa K, Rajataramya B, Barton DL, et al. Impact of using a broad-based multi-institutional approach to build capacity for non-communicable disease research in Thailand. Health Res Policy Syst. 2019;17(1):62. doi:10.1186/s12961-019-0464-8
  148. Chan-o-cha P. Thailand's commitment to global cooperation on NCDs: acting together now. Lancet. 2019;393(10166):11-13. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(18)32347-x
  149. Baker P, Brown AD, Wingrove K, et al. Generating political commitment for ending malnutrition in all its forms: a system dynamics approach for strengthening nutrition actor networks. Obes Rev. 2019;20 Suppl 2:30-44. doi:10.1111/obr.12871
  150. Akins K. El Susto (film). Brave Little Films. 2020.
  151. Fuster M, Burrowes S, Cuadrado C, et al. Understanding policy change for obesity prevention: learning from sugar-sweetened beverages taxes in Mexico and Chile. Health Promot Int. 2021;36(1):155-164. doi:10.1093/heapro/daaa045
  152. Batis C, Rivera JA, Popkin BM, Taillie LS. First-year evaluation of Mexico's tax on nonessential energy-dense foods: an observational study. PLoS Med. 2016;13(7):e1002057. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002057
  153. Freudenberg N, McDonough J, Tsui E. Can a food justice movement improve nutrition and health? a case study of the emerging food movement in New York City. J Urban Health. 2011;88(4):623-636. doi:10.1007/s11524-011-9598-x
  154. Crosbie E, Sosa P, Glantz SA. Defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay: transnational tobacco control network versus Philip Morris International. Tob Control. 2018;27(2):185-194. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053690
  155. Moodie AR. "Conflicted" conceptions of conflict of interest: how the commercial sector responses to the WHO tool on conflict of interest in nutrition policy are part of their standard playbook to undermine public health comment on "Towards preventing and managing conflict of interest in nutrition policy? an analysis of submissions to a consultation on a draft WHO tool.” Int J Health Policy Manag. 2020. doi:10.34172/ijhpm.2020.164
  156. World Cancer Research Fund International. Building Momentum: Lessons on Implementing a Robust Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tax. London: World Cancer Research Fund International; 2018.
  157. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. VicHealth Partnerships Analysis Tool. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation; 2011.
  158. NCD Alliance. Generate Momentum. NCD AllIance 2020; https://actonncds.org/en/take-action/generate-momentum. Accessed September 20, 2020.
  159. Reeve B, Gostin LO. "Big" food, tobacco, and alcohol: reducing industry influence on noncommunicable disease prevention laws and policies: Comment on "Addressing NCDs: challenges from industry market promotion and interferences.” Int J Health Policy Manag. 2019;8(7):450-454. doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2019.30
  160. Baker P, Hawkes C, Wingrove K, et al. What drives political commitment for nutrition? a review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition. BMJ Glob Health. 2018;3(1):e000485. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000485
  161. Crosbie E, Pomeranz JL, Wright KE, Hoeper S, Schmidt L. State preemption: an emerging threat to local sugar-sweetened beverage taxation. Am J Public Health. 2021;111(4):677-686. doi:10.2105/ajph.2020.306062
  162. Magnusson RS, Patterson D. The role of law and governance reform in the global response to non-communicable diseases. Global Health. 2014;10:44. doi:10.1186/1744-8603-10-44
  163. Magnusson RS, McGrady B, Gostin L, Patterson D, Abou Taleb H. Legal capacities required for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. Bull World Health Organ. 2019;97(2):108-117. doi:10.2471/blt.18.213777
  164. Ezzati M, Pearson-Stuttard J, Bennett JE, Mathers CD. Acting on non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income tropical countries. Nature. 2018;559(7715):507-516. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0306-9
  165. World Health Organization. SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. World Health Organization. 2020; https://www.who.int/sdg/targets/en/. Accessed August 3, 2020.
  166. World Health Organization. COVID-19 significantly impacts health services for noncommunicable diseases. World Health Organization. 2020; https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/01-06-2020-covid-19-significantly-impacts-health-services-for-noncommunicable-diseases. Accessed August 10, 2020.
  167. Oreskes N, Conway E. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. New York: Bloomsbury Press; 2010.