Utility of the Right to Health for Addressing Skilled Health Worker Shortages in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Document Type : Review Article


1 The George Institute for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

2 Australian Human Rights Institute, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

3 School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

4 Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

5 School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia


As a fundamental human right, the right to health (RTH) can influence state actors’ behaviour towards health inequities. Human rights advocates have invoked the RTH in a collective demand for improved access to essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Similarly, scholars have used the RTH as a framework for analysing health problems. However, its utility for addressing skilled health worker (SHW) shortages in LMICs has been understudied. Realising that SHW shortages occur due to existing push-and-pull factors within and between LMICs and high-income countries (HICs), we sought to answer the question: “how, why, and under what circumstance does the RTH offer utility for addressing SHW shortages in LMICs?”

We conducted a realist synthesis of evidence identified through a systematic search of peer-reviewed articles in Embase, Global Health, Medline (Ovid), ProQuest – Health & Medical databases, Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate), CINAHL (EBSCO), APAIS-Health, Health Systems Evidence and PDQ-EVIDENCE; as well as grey literature from Google Scholar.

We found that the RTH offers utility for addressing SHW shortages in LMICs through HIC state actors’ concerns for their countries’ reputational risk, recognition of their obligation to support health workforce strengthening in LMICs, and concerns for the cost implication. State actors in LMICs will respond to adopt programs inspired by the RTH when they are convinced that it offers tangible national benefits and are not overly burdened with ensuring its success. The socio-economic and institutional factors that constrain state actors’ response include financial cost and sustainability of rights’-based options.

State and non-state actors can use the RTH as a resource for promoting collective action towards addressing SHW shortages in LMICs. It can also inform negotiations between state actors in LMICs and their HIC counterparts.


  • epublished Author Accepted Version: January 12, 2022
  • epublished Final Version: February 7, 2022
  1. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health. Geneva: OHCHR; 2008.
  2. Hammonds R, Ooms G, Vandenhole W. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2012;12:31. doi:1186/1472-698x-12-31
  3. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR). General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 12). CESCR; 2000.
  4. Backman G, Hunt P, Khosla R, et al. Health systems and the right to health: an assessment of 194 countries. Lancet. 2008;372(9655):2047-2085. doi:1016/s0140-6736(08)61781-x
  5. Fidler DP. Fighting the axis of illness: HIV/AIDS, human rights, and US foreign policy. Harv Hum Rights J. 2004;17:99.
  6. Coggon J, Gola S. Global Health and International Community: Ethical, Political and Regulatory Challenges. A&C Black; 2013.
  7. Mann JM, Gostin L, Gruskin S, Brennan T, Lazzarini Z, Fineberg HV. Health and human rights. Health Hum Rights. 1994;1(1):6-23.
  8. World Health Organization (WHO). Increasing Access to Health Workers in Remote and Rural Areas Through Improved Retention: Global Policy Recommendations. Geneva: WHO; 2010. http://www.who.int/hrh/retention/guidelines/en/index.html. Accessed July 17, 2019.
  9. Bautista EB. Reattraction of needed skills to developing countries of origin. Int Migr. 1986;24(1):191-195. doi:1111/j.1468-2435.1986.tb00111.x
  10. Jenkins R, Kydd R, Mullen P, et al. International migration of doctors, and its impact on availability of psychiatrists in low and middle income countries. PLoS One. 2010;5(2):e9049. doi:1371/journal.pone.0009049
  11. Naicker S, Plange-Rhule J, Tutt RC, Eastwood JB. Shortage of healthcare workers in developing countries--Africa. Ethn Dis. 2009;19(1 Suppl 1):S1-60-4.
  12. Nair M, Webster P. Health professionals' migration in emerging market economies: patterns, causes and possible solutions. J Public Health (Oxf). 2013;35(1):157-163. doi:1093/pubmed/fds087
  13. Song S. Political theories of migration. Annu Rev Polit Sci. 2018;21:385-402. doi:1146/annurev-polisci-082317-093019
  14. Zubaran C. The international migration of health care professionals. Australas Psychiatry. 2012;20(6):512-517. doi:1177/1039856212467381
  15. Pawson R. The promise of systematic review. In: Pawson R, ed. Evidence-Based Policy: A Realist Perspective. United Kingdom: SAGE Publications; 2006. p. 1-16.
  16. Pawson R. Realist methodology: the building blocks of evidence. In: Pawson R, ed. Evidence-Based Policy: A Realist Perspective. United Kingdom: SAGE Publications; 2006. p. 35-39.
  17. Pawson R. Realist synthesis: new protocols for systematic review. In: Pawson R, ed. Evidence-Based Policy: A Realist Perspective. United Kingdom: SAGE Publications; 2006. p. 73-104.
  18. World Health Organization (WHO). The World Health Report 2006-Working Together for Health. Geneva: WHO; 2006. https://www.who.int/whr/2006/whr06_en.pdf?ua=1.
  19. Jagosh J, Macaulay AC, Pluye P, et al. Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: implications of a realist review for health research and practice. Milbank Q. 2012;90(2):311-346. doi:1111/j.1468-0009.2012.00665.x
  20. Lawson T. Economic Science Without Experimentation Economics and Reality. Vol 9. London: Psychology Press; 1997:208.
  21. Pawson R. Digging for nuggets: how ‘bad’ research can yield ‘good’ evidence. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2006;9(2):127-142. doi:1080/13645570600595314
  22. Danermark B, Ekström M, Jakobsen L, Karlsson JC. Explaining Society: Critical Realism in the Social Sciences. London: Routledge; 2002.
  23. Abimbola S, Baatiema L, Bigdeli M. The impacts of decentralization on health system equity, efficiency and resilience: a realist synthesis of the evidence. Health Policy Plan. 2019;34(8):605-617. doi:1093/heapol/czz055
  24. Jagosh J. Retroductive theorizing in Pawson and Tilley's applied scientific realism. J Crit Realism. 2020;19(2):121-130. doi:1080/14767430.2020.1723301
  25. Wong G, Greenhalgh T, Westhorp G, Buckingham J, Pawson R. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses. BMC Med. 2013;11:21. doi:1186/1741-7015-11-21
  26. Abuagla A, Badr E. Challenges to implementation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on International Recruitment of Health Personnel: the case of Sudan. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14(Suppl 1):26. doi:1186/s12960-016-0117-8
  27. Dovlo D. The brain drain and retention of health professionals in Africa. In: Improving Tertiary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Things That Work. Accra; 2003.
  28. Sato C. International Migration of Nurses and Human Resources for Health Policy: The Case of South Africa. Vol 11. Afrasian Research Centre, Ryukoku University; 2012. p. 1-26.
  29. Connell J, Stilwell B. Merchants of medical care: recruiting agencies in the global health care chain. In: Merchants of Labour. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies; 2006.
  30. Edge JS, Hoffman SJ. Empirical impact evaluation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel in Australia, Canada, UK and USA. Global Health. 2013;9:60. doi:1186/1744-8603-9-60
  31. Plotnikova EV. Cross-border mobility of health professionals: contesting patients' right to health. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74(1):20-27. doi:1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.012
  32. Bevan S. Britain accused of ignoring nurse-recruitment ban. Lancet. 2005;366(9501):1915-1916. doi:1016/s0140-6736(05)67772-0
  33. Willetts A, Martineau T. Ethical International Recruitment of Health Professionals: Will Codes of Practice Protect Developing Country Health Systems? Liverpool: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; 2004.
  34. Dauphinee WD. Physician migration to and from Canada: the challenge of finding the ethical and political balance between the individual's right to mobility and recruitment to underserved communities. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2005;25(1):22-29. doi:1002/chp.5
  35. Adhikari R, Grigulis A. Through the back door: nurse migration to the UK from Malawi and Nepal, a policy critique. Health Policy Plan. 2014;29(2):237-245. doi:1093/heapol/czt010
  36. Blacklock C, Heneghan C, Mant D, Ward AM. Effect of UK policy on medical migration: a time series analysis of physician registration data. Hum Resour Health. 2012;10:35. doi:1186/1478-4491-10-35
  37. Buchan J. International Recruitment of Nurses: United Kingdom Case Study. https://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/20.500.12289/18/JBreport.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Published 2002.
  38. Buchan J, McPake B, Mensah K, Rae G. Does a code make a difference--assessing the English code of practice on international recruitment. Hum Resour Health. 2009;7:33. doi:1186/1478-4491-7-33
  39. Squires A, Ojemeni MT, Jones S. Exploring longitudinal shifts in international nurse migration to the United States between 2003 and 2013 through a random effects panel data analysis. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14(Suppl 1):21. doi:1186/s12960-016-0118-7
  40. Tankwanchi AS, Hagopian A, Vermund SH. International migration of health labour: monitoring the two-way flow of physicians in South Africa. BMJ Glob Health. 2019;4(5):e001566. doi:1136/bmjgh-2019-001566
  41. Herfs PG. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Hum Resour Health. 2014;12:59. doi:1186/1478-4491-12-59
  42. Tankwanchi AB, Vermund SH, Perkins DD. Monitoring sub-Saharan African physician migration and recruitment post-adoption of the WHO code of practice: temporal and geographic patterns in the United States. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0124734. doi:1371/journal.pone.0124734
  43. Peñaloza B, Pantoja T, Bastías G, Herrera C, Rada G. Interventions to reduce emigration of health care professionals from low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011(9):CD007673. doi:1002/14651858.CD007673.pub2
  44. Kober K, Van Damme W. Scaling up access to antiretroviral treatment in southern Africa: who will do the job? Lancet. 2004;364(9428):103-107. doi:1016/s0140-6736(04)16597-5
  45. Palmer D. Tackling Malawi's human resources crisis. Reprod Health Matters. 2006;14(27):27-39. doi:1016/s0968-8080(06)27244-6
  46. Moullan Y. Can Foreign Health Assistance Reduce the Medical Brain Drain? UCL; 2009. https://sites.uclouvain.be/econ/DP/CIACO/CIACO-2009039.pdf.
  47. Schulze Schwering M, Spitzer MS, Kalua K, Batumba HN. Training ophthalmologists for developing economies: an African-German partnership. Postgrad Med J. 2014;90(1060):61-62. doi:1136/postgradmedj-2013-132059
  48. Ossai EN, Ibiok NC, Chukwuogo O, Umeobieri AK, Aniwada EC, Ugwunna NC. Rural retention of human resources for heath. Niger J Med. 2012;21(2):138-145.
  49. Sherr K, Mussa A, Chilundo B, et al. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35840. doi:1371/journal.pone.0035840
  50. Bärnighausen T, Bloom DE. "Conditional scholarships" for HIV/AIDS health workers: educating and retaining the workforce to provide antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(3):544-551. doi:1016/j.socscimed.2008.11.009
  51. Cailhol J, Craveiro I, Madede T, et al. Analysis of human resources for health strategies and policies in 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in response to GFATM and PEPFAR-funded HIV-activities. Global Health. 2013;9:52. doi:1186/1744-8603-9-52
  52. Shaffer FA, Bakhshi M, Dutka JT, Phillips J. Code for ethical international recruitment practices: the CGFNS alliance case study. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14(Suppl 1):31. doi:1186/s12960-016-0127-6
  53. Mandeville KL, Ulaya G, Lagarde M, et al. Early career retention of Malawian medical graduates: a retrospective cohort study. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20(1):106-114. doi:1111/tmi.12408
  54. Mandeville KL, Ulaya G, Lagarde M, Muula AS, Dzowela T, Hanson K. The use of specialty training to retain doctors in Malawi: a discrete choice experiment. Soc Sci Med. 2016;169:109-118. doi:1016/j.socscimed.2016.09.034
  55. Brush BL, Sochalski J. International nurse migration: lessons from the Philippines. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2007;8(1):37-46. doi:1177/1527154407301393
  56. Yan J. Health services delivery: reframing policies for global nursing migration in North America--a Caribbean perspective. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2006;7(3 Suppl):71S-75S. doi:1177/1527154406294629
  57. Geber H. Can Mentoring decrease the brain drain of academics from Africa? Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2013;93:215-220. doi:1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.180
  58. Zijlstra EE, Broadhead RL. The College of Medicine in the Republic of Malawi: towards sustainable staff development. Hum Resour Health. 2007;5:10. doi:1186/1478-4491-5-10
  59. Dambisya YM. A Review of Non-Financial Incentives for Health Worker Retention in East and Southern Africa. South Africa: Health Systems Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo; 2007. p. 54.
  60. Henderson LN, Tulloch J. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries. Hum Resour Health. 2008;6:18. doi:1186/1478-4491-6-18
  61. Kober K, Van Damme W. Public sector nurses in Swaziland: can the downturn be reversed? Hum Resour Health. 2006;4:13. doi:1186/1478-4491-4-13
  62. Tambulasi RIC, Chasukwa M. Holding the brains back in: an assessment of measures against brain drain in the Malawian health sector. Afr Rev. 2015;7(2):104-120. doi:1080/09744053.2015.1030867
  63. Tambulasi RIC. Labour crisis and innovation in developing countries: an analysis of Locum program for health personnel in Malawi. Int J Public Adm. 2012;35(8):524-531. doi:1080/01900692.2012.661188
  64. Reid SJ. Compulsory community service for doctors in South Africa--an evaluation of the first year. S Afr Med J. 2001;91(4):329-336.
  65. Salmon ME, Yan J, Hewitt H, Guisinger V. Managed migration: the Caribbean approach to addressing nursing services capacity. Health Serv Res. 2007;42(3 Pt 2):1354-1372. doi:1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00708.x
  66. Chimbari M, Madhina D, Nyamangara F, Mtandwa H, Damba V. Retention incentives for health workers in Zimbabwe. EQUINET Discussion Paper Series 65. 2008. https://equinetafrica.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/Diss65ZimHRH.pdf. Accessed August 1, 2019.
  67. Mufunda J, Chatora R, Ndambakuwa Y, Samkange C, Sigola L, Vengesa P. Challenges in training the ideal doctor for Africa: lessons learned from Zimbabwe. Med Teach. 2007;29(9):878-881. doi:1080/01421590701813007
  68. Iipinge S, Dambisya YM, Loewenson R, et al. Incentives for Health Worker Retention in East and Southern Africa: Learning from Country Research. 2009. http://harep.org/Agriculture/Diss78synthesisHRH09.pdf.
  69. Masango S, Gathu K, Sibandze S. Retention Strategies for Swaziland’s Health Sector Workforce: Assessing the Impact of Non-financial Incentives. Harare. 2008: https://equinetafrica.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/Diss68_swaziHRH.pdf.
  70. van Rensburg HC. South Africa's protracted struggle for equal distribution and equitable access - still not there. Hum Resour Health. 2014;12:26. doi:1186/1478-4491-12-26
  71. Darko VM, Nyanteh F, Boni P. Migration trends of Ghanaian nurses and midwives: impact of a recent policy implementation. West Afr J Nurs. 2006;17(2):178-182.
  72. George A, Blaauw D, Thompson J, Green-Thompson L. Doctor retention and distribution in post-apartheid South Africa: tracking medical graduates (2007-2011) from one university. Hum Resour Health. 2019;17(1):100. doi:1186/s12960-019-0439-4
  73. Paina L, Ungureanu M, Olsavszky V. Implementing the Code of Practice on International Recruitment in Romania - exploring the current state of implementation and what Romania is doing to retain its domestic health workforce. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14(Suppl 1):22. doi:1186/s12960-016-0119-6
  74. Hammett D. Physician migration in the global south between Cuba and South Africa. Int Migr. 2014;52(4):41-52. doi:1111/imig.12127
  75. Kanchanachitra C, Lindelow M, Johnston T, et al. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services. Lancet. 2011;377(9767):769-781. doi:1016/s0140-6736(10)62035-1
  76. Walton-Roberts M, Runnels V, Rajan SI, et al. Causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of health workers: key findings from India. Hum Resour Health. 2017;15(1):28. doi:1186/s12960-017-0199-y
  77. George G, Quinlan T, Reardon C, Aguilera JF. Where are we short and who are we short of? a review of the human resources for health in South Africa. Health SA Gesondheid. 2012;17(1):1-7. doi:4102/hsag.v17i1.622
  78. Chirwa Y, Mashange W, Chandiwana P, et al. Understanding Health Worker Incentives in Post-Crisis Settings: Policies to Attract and Retain Health Workers in Rural Areas in Zimbabwe Since 1997, A Document Review. Harare, Zimbabwe: ReBUILD Consortium; 2014. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a089fbe5274a27b2000365/UnderstandinghealthworkerincentivesdocreviewZimFinal210115.pdf. Accessed August 1, 2019.
  79. Mullan F, Frehywot S, Omaswa F, et al. Medical schools in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet. 2011;377(9771):1113-1121. doi:1016/s0140-6736(10)61961-7
  80. van de Pas R, Mans L, de Ponte G, Dambisya Y. The Code of Practice and its enduring relevance in Europe and Eastern and Southern Africa. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14(Suppl 1):30. doi:1186/s12960-016-0122-y
  81. Manning C, Sidorenko A. The regulation of professional migration: insights from the health and IT sectors in ASEAN. World Econ. 2007;30(7):1084-1113. doi:1111/j.1467-9701.2007.01013.x
  82. Efendi F, Chen CM. Monitoring the implementation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the international recruitment of health personnel: the case of Indonesia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14(2):P35. doi:1186/1472-6963-14-S2-P35
  83. Lassey AT, Lassey PD, Boamah M. Career destinations of University of Ghana Medical School graduates of various year groups. Ghana Med J. 2013;47(2):87-91.
  84. Wiwanitkit V. Mandatory rural service for health care workers in Thailand. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(1):1583.
  85. Mattos E, Mazetto D. Assessing the Impact of More Doctors Program on Health Care Indicators. FGV EAESP; 2018. p. 494.
  86. Harris M. Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program - a view from England. Cien Saude Colet. 2016;21(9):2919-2923. doi:1590/1413-81232015219.16952016
  87. Bode CO, Olatosi J, Amposah G, Desalu I. Has the middle-level anaesthesia manpower training program of the West African College of Surgeons fulfilled its objectives? Anaesth Intensive Care. 2013;41(3):359-362. doi:1177/0310057x1304100313
  88. Derbew M, Laytin AD, Dicker RA. The surgical workforce shortage and successes in retaining surgical trainees in Ethiopia: a professional survey. Hum Resour Health. 2016;14(Suppl 1):29. doi:1186/s12960-016-0126-7
  89. Labonté R, Sanders D, Mathole T, et al. Health worker migration from South Africa: causes, consequences and policy responses. Hum Resour Health. 2015;13:92. doi:1186/s12960-015-0093-4
  90. Hongoro C, McPake B. How to bridge the gap in human resources for health. Lancet. 2004;364(9443):1451-1456. doi:1016/s0140-6736(04)17229-2
  91. Willis-Shattuck M, Bidwell P, Thomas S, Wyness L, Blaauw D, Ditlopo P. Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:247. doi:1186/1472-6963-8-247
  92. Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Omolo JO. Incentives for Health Worker Retention in Kenya: An Assessment of Current Practice. Harare: Regional Network for Equity in Health in Southern Africa (EQUINET); 2008.
  93. Oman KM, Usher K, Moulds R. Lack of coordination between health policy and medical education: a contributing factor to the resignation of specialist trainees in Fiji? N Z Med J. 2009;122(1291):28-38.
  94. Forman L. Justice and justiciability: advancing solidarity and justice through South Africans' right to health jurisprudence. Med Law. 2008;27(3):661-683.
  95. Ngwena C. Access to health care services as a justiciable socio-economic right under the South African constitution. Med Law Int. 2003;6(1):13-23. doi:1177/096853320300600102
  96. Perehudoff SK, Alexandrov NV, Hogerzeil HV. Legislating for universal access to medicines: a rights-based cross-national comparison of UHC laws in 16 countries. Health Policy Plan. 2019;34(Suppl_3):iii48-iii57. doi:1093/heapol/czy101
  97. Hibbert N. Human rights and social justice. Laws. 2017;6(2):7. doi:3390/laws6020007
  98. Onazi O. Are Human Rights Enough? In: Human Rights from Community. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 2013. p. 50-68.
  99. Onazi O. Before rights and responsibilities: an African ethos of citizenship. In: Onazi O, eds. African Legal Theory and Contemporary Problems. Dordrecht: Springer; 2014. p. 153-172. doi:1007/978-94-007-7537-4_8
  100. Onazi O. Human rights and community: unlocking the deadlock. In: Human Rights from Community. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 2013. p. 23-49.
  101. Gavrilets S, Richerson PJ. Collective action and the evolution of social norm internalization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(23):6068-6073. doi:1073/pnas.1703857114
  102. Jagers SC, Harring N, Löfgren Å, et al. On the preconditions for large-scale collective action. Ambio. 2020;49(7):1282-1296. doi:1007/s13280-019-01284-w
  103. Stangl AL, Singh D, Windle M, et al. A systematic review of selected human rights programs to improve HIV-related outcomes from 2003 to 2015: what do we know? BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19(1):209. doi:1186/s12879-019-3692-1
  104. Hasselgård-Rowe J, Mpinga EK. Justiciability of the right to health in South Africa and Switzerland through the lens of its normative components. Int Hum Rights Law Rev. 2014;3(1):1-28. doi:1163/22131035-00301007
  105. United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commisioner. Human rights and indicators: Rationale and some concerns. Human Rights Indicators: A Guide to Measurement and Implementation. New York, Geneva: United Nations; 2011. p. 10-24.
  106. Pawson R. Evidence-Based Policy. SAGE Publications; 2006. doi:4135/9781849209120
  107. Dieleman M, Kane S, Zwanikken P, Gerretsen B. Realist Review and Synthesis of Retention Studies for Health Workers in Rural and Remote Areas. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Royal Tropical Institute; 2011.
  108. Abbiate T. Ebenezer Durojaye (ed.), litigating the right to health in Africa: challenges and prospects. Afr J Int Comp Law. 2016;24(4):615-617. doi:3366/ajicl.2016.0176
  109. Bourgeault IL, Maier CB, Dieleman M, et al. The COVID-19 pandemic presents an opportunity to develop more sustainable health workforces. Hum Resour Health. 2020;18(1):83. doi:1186/s12960-020-00529-0
  110. UN General Assembly. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1948. https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3712c.html. Accessed January 6, 2022.
Volume 11, Issue 11
November 2022
Pages 2404-2414
  • Receive Date: 25 March 2021
  • Revise Date: 11 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 11 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 12 January 2022