Document Type : Review Article
The George Institute for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Australian Human Rights Institute, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
As a fundamental human right, the right to health (RTH) can influence state actors’ behaviour towards health inequities. Human rights advocates have invoked the RTH in a collective demand for improved access to essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Similarly, scholars have used the RTH as a framework for analysing health problems. However, its utility for addressing skilled health worker (SHW) shortages in LMICs has been understudied. Realising that SHW shortages occur due to existing push-and-pull factors within and between LMICs and high-income countries (HICs), we sought to answer the question: “how, why, and under what circumstance does the RTH offer utility for addressing SHW shortages in LMICs?”
We conducted a realist synthesis of evidence identified through a systematic search of peer-reviewed articles in Embase, Global Health, Medline (Ovid), ProQuest – Health & Medical databases, Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate), CINAHL (EBSCO), APAIS-Health, Health Systems Evidence and PDQ-EVIDENCE; as well as grey literature from Google Scholar.
We found that the RTH offers utility for addressing SHW shortages in LMICs through HIC state actors’ concerns for their countries’ reputational risk, recognition of their obligation to support health workforce strengthening in LMICs, and concerns for the cost implication. State actors in LMICs will respond to adopt programs inspired by the RTH when they are convinced that it offers tangible national benefits and are not overly burdened with ensuring its success. The socio-economic and institutional factors that constrain state actors’ response include financial cost and sustainability of rights’-based options.
State and non-state actors can use the RTH as a resource for promoting collective action towards addressing SHW shortages in LMICs. It can also inform negotiations between state actors in LMICs and their HIC counterparts.